Document (#14243)

Author
Jacob, E.K.
Shaw, D.
Title
Is a picture worth a thousand words? : classification and graphic symbol systems
Source
Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green
Imprint
Frankfurt : INDEKS
Year
1996
Pages
S.174-181
Series
Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5
Abstract
Icons are graphic images with functional roles in human-computer interaction. They may be used as conceptual tools to represent the organization of information or as operators affecting an activity such as printing or moving to another document. An icon may represent its referent either as a sign, a purely arbitrary relationship that must be learned by the user; as a pictograph, a visual image of the object represented, or as an ideogram, whre the referent is not a concrete entity but an attribute, a set of attributes, or an abstract concept associated with the referent. The symbolicity of an icon reflects the drgree of representativeness that obtains between an icon and its referent(s). We propose to examine symbolic languages composed of sets of icons and to assess their effectiveness as classificatory structures in terms of: 1) representation of hierarchical structure; 2) level of symbolicity; 3) contexts that promote the capability of icons to represent organization; 4) relationship between an underlying metaphorical framework and iconic representation of the organization; 5) graphic elements of effective symbolic languages; and 6) social or cultural factors related to the effectiveness of icons

Similar documents (author)

  1. Jacob, E.K.; Shaw, D.: Sociocognitive perspectives on representation (1999) 5.68
    5.684679 = sum of:
      5.684679 = sum of:
        2.7998934 = weight(author_txt:shaw in 5689) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.7998934 = score(doc=5689,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.70003206 = queryWeight, product of:
              7.999329 = idf(docFreq=38, maxDocs=42740)
              0.087511346 = queryNorm
            3.9996645 = fieldWeight in 5689, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              7.999329 = idf(docFreq=38, maxDocs=42740)
              0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5689)
        2.884786 = weight(author_txt:jacob in 5689) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.884786 = score(doc=5689,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.71411145 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.0100062 = boost
              8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
              0.087511346 = queryNorm
            4.0396857 = fieldWeight in 5689, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
              0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5689)
    
  2. Jacob, E.: Communication and category structure : the communicative process as a constraint on the semantic representation of information (1993) 1.80
    1.8029912 = sum of:
      1.8029912 = product of:
        3.6059823 = sum of:
          3.6059823 = weight(author_txt:jacob in 7065) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.6059823 = score(doc=7065,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.71411145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0100062 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.087511346 = queryNorm
              5.0496073 = fieldWeight in 7065, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=7065)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Jacob, E.K.: Cognition and classification : a crossdisciplinary approach to a philosophy of classification (1994) 1.80
    1.8029912 = sum of:
      1.8029912 = product of:
        3.6059823 = sum of:
          3.6059823 = weight(author_txt:jacob in 903) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.6059823 = score(doc=903,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.71411145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0100062 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.087511346 = queryNorm
              5.0496073 = fieldWeight in 903, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=903)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Jacob, H.: Retrospektive Zeitschrifteninhaltserschließung in Deutschland : aus Anlaß von Estermanns Inhaltsanalytischen Bibliographien deutscher Kulturzeitschriften des 19.Jahrhunderts (1996) 1.80
    1.8029912 = sum of:
      1.8029912 = product of:
        3.6059823 = sum of:
          3.6059823 = weight(author_txt:jacob in 6545) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.6059823 = score(doc=6545,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.71411145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0100062 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.087511346 = queryNorm
              5.0496073 = fieldWeight in 6545, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=6545)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Jacob, E.K.: ¬The legacy of pragmatism : implications for knowledge organization in a pluralistic universe (2000) 1.80
    1.8029912 = sum of:
      1.8029912 = product of:
        3.6059823 = sum of:
          3.6059823 = weight(author_txt:jacob in 1120) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.6059823 = score(doc=1120,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.71411145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0100062 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.087511346 = queryNorm
              5.0496073 = fieldWeight in 1120, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1120)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Xiaoyue M.; Cahier, J.-P.: Iconic categorization with knowledge-based "icon systems" can improve collaborative KM (2011) 0.26
    0.25697756 = sum of:
      0.25697756 = product of:
        1.0707399 = sum of:
          0.0053884103 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0053884103 = score(doc=1838,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.02880229 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0060039 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.18708271 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
          0.14048131 = weight(abstract_txt:iconic in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14048131 = score(doc=1838,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.12174509 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1941289 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.1538972 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
          0.03196324 = weight(abstract_txt:representation in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03196324 = score(doc=1838,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08244988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3897462 = boost
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.38766873 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
          0.06753932 = weight(abstract_txt:represent in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06753932 = score(doc=1838,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15541431 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3368542 = boost
                5.5625715 = idf(docFreq=445, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.43457592 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5625715 = idf(docFreq=445, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
          0.25548184 = weight(abstract_txt:icon in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.25548184 = score(doc=1838,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3773056 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6411011 = boost
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.67712176 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
          0.56988573 = weight(abstract_txt:icons in 1838) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.56988573 = score(doc=1838,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.44661987 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.5742984 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.2759973 = fieldWeight in 1838, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1838)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  2. Sulaiman, M.; Meadows, J.: Icons and OPACs (1995) 0.20
    0.19539589 = sum of:
      0.19539589 = product of:
        1.2212243 = sum of:
          0.0064660925 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 4761) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0064660925 = score(doc=4761,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.02880229 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0060039 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.22449924 = fieldWeight in 4761, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4761)
          0.097328305 = weight(abstract_txt:iconic in 4761) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.097328305 = score(doc=4761,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12174509 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1941289 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.79944336 = fieldWeight in 4761, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4761)
          0.43356702 = weight(abstract_txt:icon in 4761) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.43356702 = score(doc=4761,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.3773056 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6411011 = boost
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.1491137 = fieldWeight in 4761, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4761)
          0.6838629 = weight(abstract_txt:icons in 4761) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.6838629 = score(doc=4761,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.44661987 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.5742984 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.5311968 = fieldWeight in 4761, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4761)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  3. Ma, Y.; Diodato, V.: Icons as visual form of knowledge representation on the World Wide Web : a semiotic analysis (1999) 0.18
    0.18436855 = sum of:
      0.18436855 = product of:
        1.1523035 = sum of:
          0.00609629 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 675) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.00609629 = score(doc=675,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.02880229 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0060039 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.21165991 = fieldWeight in 675, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=675)
          0.03616228 = weight(abstract_txt:representation in 675) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03616228 = score(doc=675,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08244988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3897462 = boost
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.43859708 = fieldWeight in 675, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=675)
          0.354006 = weight(abstract_txt:icon in 675) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.354006 = score(doc=675,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.3773056 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6411011 = boost
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.9382474 = fieldWeight in 675, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=675)
          0.7560389 = weight(abstract_txt:icons in 675) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.7560389 = score(doc=675,freq=11.0), product of:
              0.44661987 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.5742984 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.6928017 = fieldWeight in 675, product of:
                3.3166249 = tf(freq=11.0), with freq of:
                  11.0 = termFreq=11.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=675)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  4. Ma, X.; Cahier, J.-P.: ¬An exploratory study on semantic arrangement of VDL-based iconic knowledge tags (2014) 0.16
    0.15500675 = sum of:
      0.15500675 = product of:
        0.7750337 = sum of:
          0.18352401 = weight(abstract_txt:iconic in 3368) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18352401 = score(doc=3368,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.12174509 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1941289 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.5074449 = fieldWeight in 3368, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3368)
          0.03616228 = weight(abstract_txt:representation in 3368) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03616228 = score(doc=3368,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08244988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3897462 = boost
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.43859708 = fieldWeight in 3368, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.9621596 = idf(docFreq=812, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3368)
          0.028585883 = weight(abstract_txt:organization in 3368) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028585883 = score(doc=3368,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.101662554 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.890021 = boost
                4.498944 = idf(docFreq=1291, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.281184 = fieldWeight in 3368, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.498944 = idf(docFreq=1291, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3368)
          0.20438546 = weight(abstract_txt:icon in 3368) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20438546 = score(doc=3368,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3773056 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6411011 = boost
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.5416974 = fieldWeight in 3368, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3368)
          0.32237607 = weight(abstract_txt:icons in 3368) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.32237607 = score(doc=3368,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.44661987 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.5742984 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.7218131 = fieldWeight in 3368, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3368)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Walsh, J.A.: "Images of God and friends of God" : the holy icon as document (2012) 0.13
    0.13195077 = sum of:
      0.13195077 = product of:
        0.8246923 = sum of:
          0.011405115 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 1975) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011405115 = score(doc=1975,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.02880229 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0060039 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.39597943 = fieldWeight in 1975, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1975)
          0.09918038 = weight(abstract_txt:graphic in 1975) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09918038 = score(doc=1975,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.23299348 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8612645 = boost
                6.81086 = idf(docFreq=127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.42567876 = fieldWeight in 1975, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.81086 = idf(docFreq=127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1975)
          0.20438546 = weight(abstract_txt:icon in 1975) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20438546 = score(doc=1975,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3773056 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6411011 = boost
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              0.5416974 = fieldWeight in 1975, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1975)
          0.50972134 = weight(abstract_txt:icons in 1975) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.50972134 = score(doc=1975,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.44661987 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.5742984 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011955942 = queryNorm
              1.1412867 = fieldWeight in 1975, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1975)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)