Document (#18044)

Author
Oppenheim, C.
Title
Intellectual property : legal and other issues
Source
Information studies. 3(1997) no.1, S.5-22
Year
1997
Abstract
The rapidly increasing volume and variety of electronic or digitized information sources and their accessibility worldwide, have brought to the surface new issues concerning intellectual property, the complexity of the related legal questions and application of legislative measures in real world situations. Attemps to define 'intellectual property' from different points of view; considers the different types with different 'strengths' of protection, and the underlying objectives of such protection. Discusses copyright and international treaties on intellectual property, what is protected and for how long, the concept of fair use and the role of organizations concerned with reproduction rights. Presents a brief overview of the intellectual property questions relating to electronic media: machine readable databases, the information resources on the Internet, and images; electrocopying and downloading of texts and images from networks; and the special nature and copyright problems of multimedia. Also considers moral rights and the need for and feasibility of establishing Electronic Copyright Management System (ECMS)

Similar documents (author)

  1. Oppenheim, C.: Recent EC initiatives on copyright (1993) 5.07
    5.0738497 = sum of:
      5.0738497 = weight(author_txt:oppenheim in 4279) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.0738497 = fieldWeight in 4279, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.118159 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=41962)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4279)
    
  2. Oppenheim, C.: Electronic copyright (1993) 5.07
    5.0738497 = sum of:
      5.0738497 = weight(author_txt:oppenheim in 6087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.0738497 = fieldWeight in 6087, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.118159 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=41962)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=6087)
    
  3. Oppenheim, C.: ¬The applications of virtual reality : pt.1.2 (1993) 5.07
    5.0738497 = sum of:
      5.0738497 = weight(author_txt:oppenheim in 7244) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.0738497 = fieldWeight in 7244, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.118159 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=41962)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=7244)
    
  4. Oppenheim, C.: ¬The implications of copyright legislation for electronic access to journal collections (1994) 5.07
    5.0738497 = sum of:
      5.0738497 = weight(author_txt:oppenheim in 7245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.0738497 = fieldWeight in 7245, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.118159 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=41962)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=7245)
    
  5. Oppenheim, C.: ¬The virtual library : some common sense please (1994) 5.07
    5.0738497 = sum of:
      5.0738497 = weight(author_txt:oppenheim in 289) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.0738497 = fieldWeight in 289, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.118159 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=41962)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=289)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Guthrie, L.: Legal protection for databases : a summary (1997) 0.48
    0.48191187 = sum of:
      0.48191187 = product of:
        1.7211138 = sum of:
          0.040607616 = weight(abstract_txt:issues in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040607616 = score(doc=2380,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08588896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2870325 = boost
                4.32267 = idf(docFreq=1512, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.47279203 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.32267 = idf(docFreq=1512, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.21998183 = weight(abstract_txt:treaties in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21998183 = score(doc=2380,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.21027142 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.423954 = boost
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.0461804 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.12527213 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12527213 = score(doc=2380,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18201283 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8735782 = boost
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.68825984 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.41159755 = weight(abstract_txt:protection in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.41159755 = score(doc=2380,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.25341222 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2107244 = boost
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.6242214 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.3534986 = weight(abstract_txt:copyright in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3534986 = score(doc=2380,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.28847897 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8888404 = boost
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.2253878 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.22265296 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22265296 = score(doc=2380,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.36246383 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1804514 = boost
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.61427635 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
          0.34750316 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 2380) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.34750316 = score(doc=2380,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.48769864 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.849161 = boost
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.71253663 = fieldWeight in 2380, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2380)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  2. Thompson, N.J.: Intellectual property materials online/CD-ROM : what and where (1992) 0.45
    0.44628587 = sum of:
      0.44628587 = product of:
        1.8595245 = sum of:
          0.12315404 = weight(abstract_txt:moral in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12315404 = score(doc=992,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14283067 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1735904 = boost
                7.8833194 = idf(docFreq=42, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.86223805 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.8833194 = idf(docFreq=42, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
          0.17716153 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17716153 = score(doc=992,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.18201283 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8735782 = boost
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.9733464 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
          0.21480417 = weight(abstract_txt:rights in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21480417 = score(doc=992,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.20695893 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9978502 = boost
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.0379072 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
          0.20409252 = weight(abstract_txt:copyright in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20409252 = score(doc=992,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.28847897 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8888404 = boost
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.707478 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
          0.4453059 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.4453059 = score(doc=992,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.36246383 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1804514 = boost
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.2285527 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
          0.6950063 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 992) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.6950063 = score(doc=992,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.48769864 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.849161 = boost
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.4250733 = fieldWeight in 992, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=992)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  3. Horowitz, I.L.: Publishing, property, and the National Information Infrastructure (1995) 0.42
    0.4222449 = sum of:
      0.4222449 = product of:
        1.3195153 = sum of:
          0.087967165 = weight(abstract_txt:fair in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.087967165 = score(doc=2872,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14283067 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1735904 = boost
                7.8833194 = idf(docFreq=42, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.6158843 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.8833194 = idf(docFreq=42, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.041019883 = weight(abstract_txt:issues in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041019883 = score(doc=2872,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08588896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2870325 = boost
                4.32267 = idf(docFreq=1512, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.47759205 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.32267 = idf(docFreq=1512, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.08948009 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08948009 = score(doc=2872,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18201283 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8735782 = boost
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.4916142 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.15343156 = weight(abstract_txt:rights in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15343156 = score(doc=2872,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.20695893 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9978502 = boost
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.74136233 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.14699912 = weight(abstract_txt:protection in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14699912 = score(doc=2872,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25341222 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2107244 = boost
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.5800791 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.14578037 = weight(abstract_txt:copyright in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14578037 = score(doc=2872,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.28847897 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8888404 = boost
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.5053414 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.22491346 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22491346 = score(doc=2872,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.36246383 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1804514 = boost
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.62051284 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
          0.42992365 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 2872) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.42992365 = score(doc=2872,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.48769864 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.849161 = boost
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.8815355 = fieldWeight in 2872, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2872)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  4. Prinsley, M.: Internationally harmonised copyright of electronic publishing : conspicuous by its absence (1997) 0.40
    0.40352273 = sum of:
      0.40352273 = product of:
        1.6813447 = sum of:
          0.2514078 = weight(abstract_txt:treaties in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2514078 = score(doc=3122,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.21027142 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.423954 = boost
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.1956347 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
          0.07663409 = weight(abstract_txt:considers in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07663409 = score(doc=3122,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.119992025 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5212375 = boost
                5.1092787 = idf(docFreq=688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.63865983 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1092787 = idf(docFreq=688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
          0.2351986 = weight(abstract_txt:protection in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2351986 = score(doc=3122,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25341222 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2107244 = boost
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.9281265 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.425012 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
          0.46649718 = weight(abstract_txt:copyright in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.46649718 = score(doc=3122,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.28847897 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8888404 = boost
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.6170925 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
          0.2544605 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2544605 = score(doc=3122,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.36246383 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1804514 = boost
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.7020301 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
          0.39714646 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 3122) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.39714646 = score(doc=3122,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.48769864 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.849161 = boost
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.8143276 = fieldWeight in 3122, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3122)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  5. Bainbrifge, D.I.: Copyright in relation to electronic publishing in the humanities (1995) 0.39
    0.38707566 = sum of:
      0.38707566 = product of:
        1.382413 = sum of:
          0.06705482 = weight(abstract_txt:considers in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06705482 = score(doc=6738,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.119992025 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5212375 = boost
                5.1092787 = idf(docFreq=688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.55882734 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1092787 = idf(docFreq=688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.12527213 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12527213 = score(doc=6738,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18201283 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8735782 = boost
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.68825984 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2926617 = idf(docFreq=210, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.11454192 = weight(abstract_txt:electronic in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11454192 = score(doc=6738,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.123647615 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8912953 = boost
                4.234778 = idf(docFreq=1651, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.9263577 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.234778 = idf(docFreq=1651, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.1518895 = weight(abstract_txt:rights in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1518895 = score(doc=6738,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20695893 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9978502 = boost
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.7339113 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.710046 = idf(docFreq=138, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.3534986 = weight(abstract_txt:copyright in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3534986 = score(doc=6738,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.28847897 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8888404 = boost
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              1.2253878 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.46837 = idf(docFreq=176, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.22265296 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22265296 = score(doc=6738,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.36246383 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1804514 = boost
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.61427635 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.616241 = idf(docFreq=414, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
          0.34750316 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 6738) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.34750316 = score(doc=6738,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.48769864 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.849161 = boost
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.015438168 = queryNorm
              0.71253663 = fieldWeight in 6738, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.514621 = idf(docFreq=168, maxDocs=41962)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6738)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)