Document (#23009)

Author
Schmidt, A.
Title
Endo-Management : Wissenslenkung in Cyber-Ökonomien
Source
Wechselwirkung. 21(1999) Nr.98, S.54-59
Year
1999
Abstract
Was ist Wissensmanagement? Wissensmanagement ist eine integrale Vorgehensweise, um das Wissen von Individuen, Teams, Organisationen oder Gesellschaften weiterzuentwickeln. Wissensmanagement verfolgt hierbei das Ziel, Wissen im Einklang mit der Unternehmensstrategie effizienter zu navigieren, zu erzeugen, zu nutzen und zu kommunizieren, um die Lebensfähigkeit und Kernkompetenzen von Unternehmen ständig zu verbessern. Da in den meisten Unternehmen weniger als 50 % des vorhandenen Wissens genutzt wird, ist Wissen der wichtigste Rohstoff der Zukunft. Wissen besteht aus Daten, beim Individuum erzeugten Informationen, aus zuvor gemachten Erfahrungen, aus Kreativität und ernotionaler Intelligenz. Wissen ist somit ein mehrdimensionales Phänomen, daß untrennbar mit den menschlichen Interfaces und ihren Interaktionen gekoppelt ist. Die Entwicklung des Wissensmanagements wird durch die Zunahme der Interaktionen im Internet nachhaltig beeinflusst. Die Vorteile eines gezielten Wissensmanagements sind ein kostengünstiger und schneller Zugang zu internen und externen Wissensquellen, die Reduzierung des Zeitaufwandes beim Hervorbringen von Innovationen, die Förderung der Kommunikations- und Teamfähigkeit bei den Mitarbeitern, Effizienzsteigerungen durch direkten Zugriff auf Daten durch alle Mitarbeiter, die Beschleunigung sämtlicher Unternehmensprozesse, eine effektivere Einbindung von Kunden in problemlösungsorientierte Netzwerke sowie die Möglichkeit der interaktiven Kommunikation und Simulation in komplexen Projektumgebungen. Erfolgreiches Wissens-Management erfordert interdisziplinäres Wissen, welches die unterschiedlichen Fachgebiete verbindet und dadurch zum Katalysator für Innovationen werden kann. Zielorientiertes Wissensmanagement erfordert die Lenkungsfähigkeiten im Hinblick auf Daten- und Informationserzeugung auf allen organisatorischen Ebenen zu verbessern. Dies ist die Voraussetzung, damit Führungskräfte, Sacharbeiter oder Studenten Gestaltungsprozesse mit der Ressource Wissen vornehmen können. Unternehmen, die zukünftig nicht über ein effizientes Wissens-Managenent verfügen, werden in einem wissensintensiven Wettbewerb nicht bestehen können.
Die Wissensstrategie versucht deshalb die Innovationsfähigkeit von Organisationen systematisch zu verbessern, mit dem Ziel, die Adaption an die Kundenbedürfnisse zu steigern. Statt lediglich einen Return on Investment (ROI) zu betrachten wird zunehmend auch ein Retum on Knowledge (ROK), d.h. eine qualitative Größe bei der Bewertung des Unternehmungserfolges eine Rolle spielen. Die Wissen-Strategie gibt dem Wissensmanagement eine konkrete Richtung und definiert, wo Wissensdefizite sind und welche neuen Wissensquellen erschlossen werden müssen. Wer Wissen in Unternehmen hortet ohne es weiterzugeben, schadet dem Unternehmen. Deshalb muß es das Ziel jeder Wissensstrategie sein, die Fähigkeiten der Mitarbeiter derart zu schulen, daß diese das Wissen mit anderen Teilnehmern teilen und gemeinsam weiterentwickeln. Da effizientes Wissens-Management auch eine intelligente Vernetzung von Unternehmen bedingt, werden Firmen, die ein zielorientiertes Management der Ressource Wissen betreiben wollen, nicht umhin kommen, ihre Unternehmensstrukturen den Hyperlink-Strukturen des Meta-Wissensnetzes Internet anzupassen. Wissen schafft Wachstum. Management von Wissen ist ein typischer Endo-Prozeß, da er innen bei den Individuen beginnt und sich mit der temporären Vernetzung zu Endo-Netzen im Rahmen von Teams oder größeren Diskussionsgruppen fortsetzt. Voraussetzung für die Generierung von neuem Wissen ist jedoch, daß die Wissensquellen frei zugänglich sind (Wissenstransparenz), daß das Wissen im Unternehmen zielgerichtet weitergereicht wird (Wissenskommunikation) und daß dieses Wissen von den Teilnehmern auch verwendet werden kann (Wissensanschlußfähigkeit).
Die Halbwertszeit neuer Technologien, Strukturen und Prozesse erfordert ein spezielles Wissensmanagement im Hinblick auf Innovationen und Erfindungen. Beispiele aus erfolgreichen Unternehmen wie Microsoft, Intel oder Compaq zeigen, daß durch die gezielte Nutzung und Weiterentwicklung des in den Unternehmen vorhandenen Wissens Kostensenkungs- und Wachstumspotentiale freigesetzt werden können, die mit herkömmlichen Verschlankungsansätzen oder ReorganisationskonzePten nicht hätten erreicht werden können. Qualitatives Wachstum durch Wissensaustausch erfordert jedoch Echtzeitsysteme, die instantane Diskussionen und Interaktionen in Internet-Foren, Intranets oder mit externen Netzwerken erlauben. Endo-Management. Beim Endo-Management (= Unternehmensführung im Cyberspace) geht es um die Gestaltung, Simulation und Lenkung von künstlichen Welten sowie die Wahrnehmung, Kommunikation und Interaktion mit diesen CyberWelten durch Virtuelle Realitäten. Netzwerke werden hierbei nicht im Rahmen von Markt- oder Organisationsuntersuchungen, sondern im Rahmen von Interfaces betrachtet, d.h. von Strukturen und Prozessen, die unsere Wirklichkeiten konstruieren. Die Vielfalt der simulierten Alternativen erfordert hierbei Freiräume für die Teilnehmer, damit neue Regeln sowohl für die Exo (Außen)- als auch die Endo (Innen)-Welten erfunden werden können.
Da der Mensch gleichzeitig Teilnehmer der physischen Exo-Welt sowie Teilnehmer der Endo-Welt des Computers im Rahmen des Cyberspace sein kann, hat er die notwendige ExoPerspektive (Super-BeobachterStatus) gegenüber der Simulation, um die Endo-Welten weiterzuentwickeln und zu verbessern. Darüber hinaus erfolgreiche Problemlösungen innerhalb des Cyberspace gegebenenfalls auch auf physische Exo-Welten übertragen werden. Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiches Endo-Management sind "Community Networks", d.h. Systeme, die sich an die gesamte Bevölkerung eines lokalen Gerneinwesens richten. Derartige Conirmunities haben das Ziel, Bürgerinnen und Bürger kostenlos bzw gegen ein äußerst geringes Entgelt an den Vorteilen der direkten Kommunikation und des echtzeitorientierten Wissensaustausches partizipieren zu lassen. Die Lenkungsproblematik wird oftmals von Software-Experten ignoriert und alleinig auf technologische Problemlösungen eingeengt. Es gibt jedoch keine Algorithmen für Communities, da diese sich durch die Wechselwirkung der Teilnehmer selbst organisieren und ständig neue Interfaces designen. Das Endo-Management von "Cornmunity-Networks" basiert hierbei auf folgenden Erfolgscharakteristiken: dauerhafte Identitäten, fortgesetzte Interaktion, Anschlußfähigkeit an vorhergehende Kommunikation, Transparenz der Handlungen der einzelnen Teilnehmer, eindeutige Spielregeln, eine relativ stabile Population, wohl definierte Grenzen sowie einen Mehrwert für die Teilnehmer, der in sozialen Bindungen oder einer Erhöhung des Wissens besteht
Theme
Information
Information Resources Management

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