Document (#23582)

Author
fwt
Title
Daten-Archäologen erwarten viel Arbeit : Speicher-Medien
Source
Frankfurter Rundschau. Nr.13 vom 16.1.2001, S.26
Year
2001
Abstract
Das Szenario ist nicht abwegig: Im Jahr 2200 durchstöbern Kinder einen verstaubten Koffer ihres Ur-Ur-Ur-Ur-Großvaters. Neben alten Kleidern und Büchern entdecken sie zwei silbrig-glänzende Scheiben in einer zerbröselten Plastikhülle. Darauf steht kaum lesbar: "Urlaubsbilder, Sommer 2001". Während die Kleinen in den brüchigen Büchern vorsichtig blättern können, bleibt ihnen der Inhalt der 200 Jahre alten Datenträger verschlossen - vermutlich werden sie kaum jemanden finden, der das Datenformat der alten CD-ROM lesen und in die einst gespeicherten Bilder umsetzen kann. Folgenreich wird das für Unternehmen und Behörden. Die haben sich lange Zeit reichlich naiv darauf verlassen, dass man für die Ewigkeit speichern kann", sagt Michael Friedewald vom Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung in Karlsruhe. Fachleute schätzen, CD-ROMs laufen etwa 50 Jahre lang, bevor ihre reflektierende Metallschicht oxidiert. Aber: Bislang hat noch keine Scheibe dieses Alter erreicht", mahnt Friedewald. Die Haltbarkeit von Festplatten oder Disketten wird von ihrer chemischen Zusammensetzung bestimmt. Meist wird auf einer Folie ein Bindernittel aufgetragen, das Metallpartikel für die magnetische Speicherung festhält. In dem Verbund können Atome diffundieren. Dringt Sauerstoff ein, oxidiert der Aufbau womöglich. Bei CD-ROMs könnte die aufgedampfte Aluminiumschiebt korrodieren. Die Festplatten-Hersteller versprechen eine Art Mindesthaltbarkeit: Die mean time between failures", kurz MTBF, geben sie mit etwa 250000 Betriebsstunden an. Aber auch hier gilt: Bislang war keine modeine Festplatte so lange im Einsatz. Ein weiteres Problem der Informationsgesellschaft ist ihr rasender technischer Fortschritt. In den vergangenen 40 Jahren sind viele Speichermedien entstanden und spurlos verschwunden. Viele benötigten besondere Lese- und Schreibgeräte, die es nur noch selten gibt. Neue Produkte wie digitale Kameras oder Spielekonsolen bringen immer weitere Speicherelemente. Experten sehen grundsätzlich drei Lösungen. Die erste wäre eine Art Kuriositätenkabinett des Informationszeitalters ein riesiger Gerätepark mit Computern, Schreib- und Lesegeräten. Das Museum müsste mitsamt dem Wissen seiner Mitarbeiter von Generation zu Generation weitergegeben werden. Ein zweiter Ausweg ist, alte Rechner auf ihren neuen, schnelleren Nachfolgern zu simulieren. So kursieren die Logiken beispielsweise der alten Atari- und Commodore-Modelle im Internet. Auf schnellen Rechnern gestartet, verhalten die sich wie der einst weit verbreitete C 64. Der dritte Weg -das Migration genannte Umkopieren der alten auf neue Speichennedien. Das muss regelmäßig und immer wieder geschehen, um die Daten vor der Vergreisung der elektronisehen Bauteile und Komponenten zu bewahren. Für Andreas Simon, wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Regelungstechnik der Universität Braunschweig, heißt das derzeit, alle Schallplatten auf CI)s zu überspielen - so lange es noch gute Plattenspieler gibt
Form
Elektronische Datenträger

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