Document (#23636)

Author
Ramm, T.
Title
¬Der Computer ersetzt den Lesesaal : Die Wissenschaftspublikation im digitalen Zeitalter - Verleger und Bibliothekare müssen künftig Informationsvermeidung betreiben
Source
Frankfurter Rundschau. Nr.43 vom 20.2.2001, S.29
Year
2001
Abstract
Der technische Fortschritt macht es möglich: Künftig können Wissenschaftler und Studenten sämtliche Fachinformationen auch zu noch so speziellen Themen mit dem Computer überall unkompliziert abrufen. Denn die Forscher stellen ihre jeweils neusten Erkenntnisse unmittelbar ins Internet, wo sie - wenn auch nicht unbedingt kostenlos - für alle zugänglich sind. Braucht es da noch Bibliothekare, Buchhändler und Verleger? Ja, lautete die Antwort bei einem Symposium. des Börsenvereins des Deutschen Buchhandels zum Thema Wissenschaftspublikation im digitalen Zeitalter' in Berlin - aber mit neuer Rollenverteilung in der Branche. Die Begierde nach Wissen wird auch 2010 noch existieren, doch die Methode, sie zu stillen, wird sich noch weiter ändern. Wenn etwa eine Studentin ein Referat über das Klonen von Genen schreiben soll, kann sie zwar heute schon vom heimischen Computer aus via Internet nach Literatur suchen und Fachbeiträge abrufen. Doch das erspart es ihr nicht, in die Bibliothek zu gehen und eine Reihe von Büchern nach nützlichen Kapiteln zum gesuchten Thema zu durchblättern. Künftig wird sie ganz zu Hause bleiben können. Über die Volltext-Datenbank der digitalen Unibibliothek oder eines Fachverlags kann sie schnell über sämtliche Fachliteratur zum Klonen verfügen oder sich mit der Suchmaschine die entsprechenden Auszüge aus umfassenderen Darstellungen herauspicken und zu einem neuen Informationspaket zusammenstellen, das sie dann am Bildschirm liest oder ausdruckt. Diesen kurzen Weg künftiger Informationsbeschaffung zeichnete zumindest der Hamburger Buchhändler Volker Hasenclever. Für ihn steht fest: Fachwissen wird ganz ohne Drucktechnik publiziert werden." Tatsächlich bietet die digitale Wissenschaftspublizistik eine Reihe Vorteile: Neue Forschungsergebnisse erreichen die Leser viel schneller, und diese können sich entsprechend den eigenen Bedürfnissen individuelle Infopakete schnüren, ohne mehrere teure Fachbücher kaufen zu müssen, in denen sie dann vielleicht nur ein bis zwei Kapitel nutzen.
Außerdem werden die Vertriebswege einfacher und billiger. Hasenclever: Dadurch können kleine, dezentrale Gruppen viel leichter erreicht werden. Der Umfang von Nischenmärkten wird stark wachsen." Denn herkömmliche Fachbücher mit geringer Auflage und kleiner Zielgruppe sind in der Herstellung besonders teuer und rechnen sich nicht immer. Das Platzproblem in den heimischen Bücherregalen und den öffentlichen Büchereien werde ebenfalls gelöst: Wir werden künftig digitale Bibliotheken im Web haben", so Hasenclever. Die papierlose Zukunft stellt so die traditionellen Rollen von Verlegern, Buchhändlern und Bibliothekaren zur Disposition. Vor fünf Jahren haben wir uns tatsächlich gefragt, ob die überhaupt noch gebraucht werden", berichtete Bertram Gallus vom Bibliotheks-Ausschuss des Börsenvereins. Mittlerweile gehe aber "niemand mehr davon aus, dass es keine Bibliothekare, Verleger oder Händler mehr geben wird", meinte Georg Ruppelt, der Sprecher der Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Bibliotheksverbände. Schließlich müsse jemand für den Leser die Informationsfluten kanalisieren, gewichten und selektieren. Aufgabe wird es künftig sein, Infbrmationsvermeidung zu betreiben", erläuterte sein Kollege Albert Bilo. Außerdem werde kaum ein hoch bezahlter Professor dazu bereit sein, seine Forschungsarbeit selbst Korrektur zu lesen und zu layouten. ,Die Verlage müssen sich weniger als Buch- oder Zeitschriftenverleger verstehen, sondern eher als Informationsvermittler. Doch das ist noch nicht überall geschehen", mahnte Albrecht Hauff vom Verleger-Ausschuss des Börsenvereins. Zurzeit herrsche noch zu sehr die Haltung: Glücklicherweise gibt es noch Nachfrage nach Print.« Zumindest das Ende der gedruckten Fachzeitschriften scheint absehbar, weil sich digitale Veröffentlichungen schnell aktualisieren lassen. Der Leser muss zudem nicht mehr das ganze Heft kaufen, sondern wird im Netz nur noch die Artikel abrufen, die ihn interessieren.
Noch stemmen sich die Verlage gegen diesen Trend, indem sie eine Nutzung der digitalen Ausgaben ihrer Zeitschriften an ein Print-Abo koppeln und obendrein Extra-Gebühren verlangen. Noch hat die Branche Zeit, sich auf den Wandel einzustellen- "Der Übergang von Print zu Online dauert länger als gedacht", hat Hauff -beobachtet. Das Nutzungsverhalten ändere sich langsamer als die technische Entwicklung Vor allem die Autoren hegen großes Misstrauen gegen die digitale Veröffentlichung ihrer Werke, berichtete der Sprecher des Börsenvereins, Eugen Einmerling. Ein Grund dafür ist das noch fehlende Urheberrecht für Internet-Publikationen. Bislang gilt nur bei "physischen Datenträgern" wie Buch und CD-ROM die Regel: Wer Werke vervielfältigen will, muss dazu die Rechte beim Autor und Verleger erwerben. Hinzu kommt, dass Wissenschaftler großen Wert darauf legen, dass ihre Artikel bei einer renommierten Zeitschrift veröffentlicht werden. Den Vorteil des Gedruckten sehen viele zudem in der Unvergänglichkeit. Wie Internet-Dokumente Über längere Zeit archiviert werden können, weiß noch niemand so recht. Heute aktuelle Speichermedien lassen sich möglicherweise in zehn Jahren von der dann neuen Computergeneration gar nicht mehr lesen - wie heute etwa die veraltete Fünfeinhalb-Zoll-Diskette, für die es kaum noch Laufwerke gibt. Dieses Problem haben sich die Königliche Bibliothek in Dänemark und die British Library angenommen, berichtete Elisabeth Niggemann, die Generaldirektorin der Deutschen Bibliothek. Die beiden Nationalbibliotheken haben die Entwicklung eines Supercomputers ausgeschrieben, der den Zugriff auf ältere Daten ermöglichen soll. Bis es soweit ist, werden nicht wenige Bibliothekare damit beschäftigt sein, elektronische Dateien auf das jeweils neue Speichermedium zu, kopieren. Bei aller Digitalisierung aber sollte laut Norbert Lammert, dem Kultur- und edienpolitischen Sprecher der Unionsfraktion im Bundestag, eines nicht vergessen werden: Wissen entsteht nicht auf der Festplatte, sondern im Kopf. Nur dort ist die Vernetzung wirklich wichtig."
Theme
Elektronisches Publizieren

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  4. Langer, U.: ¬Der öffentlich-rechtliche Sündenfall : ARD und ZDF bauen ihre Internet-Auftritte aus und ziehen dabei den Ärger der kommerziellen Konkurrenz auf sich (2001) 0.26
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  5. Henzinger, M.; Wiesemann, M.: Google-Forschungschefin Monika Henzinger beklagt Manipulationen von Suchmaschinen : "Tricks der Porno-Branche" (2002) 0.26
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