Document (#23666)

Author
Hoffman, D.D.
Title
Wie die Welt im Kopf entsteht : Visuelle Intelligenz
Issue
Aus d. Amerikan. von Hainer Kober. 2. Aufl.
Imprint
Stuttgart : Klett-Cotta
Year
2001
Pages
331 S
Isbn
3-608-94221-1
Abstract
Dieses Buch gehört zum Besten, was zum Thema Kognition, Bewusstsein und Realität in den letzten Jahren in deutscher Sprache erschienen ist. Donald D. Hoffman, Professor für Kognitionswissenschaft, Philosophie und Computerwissenschaft an der Universität von Kalifornien in Irvine, hat eine beeindruckende Arbeit abgeliefert; schon die 32 Seiten Literaturverzeichnis zeugen von ungeheurem Fleiß. Gleichwohl kommt der Haupttext flott und dennoch präzise formuliert daher. Es macht Spaß, mit Hoffman gemeinsam zu entdecken, "wie unsere Welt im Kopf entsteht". Das Hauptthema des Buches ist unser visuelles System, also der Teil unseres Gehirns, der uns "Augentieren" den Großteil unseres Welterlebens vermittelt: mühelos, unbewusst und in Bruchteilen von Sekunden, sobald wir die Augen öffnen. Und genau darum sind uns die komplizierten Prozesse, die sich dabei in unserem Gehirn abspielen, weitgehend unbekannt. Folgerichtig überrascht uns der Autor zunächst mit allerlei visuellen Merkwürdigkeiten, die alle nur ein Ziel haben: uns davon zu überzeugen, dass "Sehen" nicht im Geringsten der selbstverständliche Vorgang ist, für den man es im Allgemeinen hält. Dabei zieht Hoffman alle Register der Psychophysik: Er konfrontiert den Leser mit Würfeln, die keine sind, mit Quadraten und Dreiecken, die zwar zu sehen sind, aber nie gedruckt wurden, und mit Farbflächen, die einmal braun, ein andermal rot erscheinen - abhängig vom Kontext. Alles dies lässt nur einen einzigen Schluss zu: Die Welt ist nicht so, wie sie unseren Augen erscheint. Offensichtlich genügen schon schwache Andeutungen, um bestimmte und manchmal halt auch falsche Perzepte zu erzeugen. Der Grund ist einfach: Je früher ein Individuum erste Hinweise etwa auf ein potenziell gefährliches Raubtiererkennt, desto größer ist seine Überlebenschance. Es macht also durchaus Sinn, selbst kleinste Hinweise interpretierend ernst zu nehmen. Nun liefern aber die vagen Helligkeitsschwankungen, die von unseren Angenlinsen uf die Netzhäute projiziert werden, kaum genügend Anhaltspunkte zur direkten Analyse. Erst mit Hilfe extrem mächtiger Heuristiken kommt eine blitzschnell arbeitende Maschine, eben unser visuelles System, zu brauchbaren Schlüssen. In diesem Sinne konstruiert unser visuelles System die Welt, die wir sehen. Gerade weil Erlebtes nicht nur von den Eingangsdaten abhängt, sondern interpretiert wird, sind Täuschungen möglich; diese lehren uns letztlich nur, wie vage die optischen Eingangsdaten sind. Auch bei allen anderen Sinnen, etwa beim Hören und beim Tastsinn unterliegen wir ähnlichen Täuschungen. Und all dies lässt nur einen einzigen, recht radikalen Schluss zu: Die Welt, wie wir sie erleben, ist konstruiert; sie existiert nur in unserem Kopf, erzeugt von einer gewaltigen Inferenz- (Schlussfolgerungs-)Maschine, unserem Gehirn. Im Verlauf des Buches lernt der Leser insgesamt 34 Regeln kennen, die unser visuelles System - manchmal konkurrierend - einsetzt, um aus dem Netzhautbild Sinn zu machen. So kommen wir praktisch nie auf die Idee, dass eine gerade Linie in einer Zeichnung Abbild einer im Dreidimensionalen gekrümmten Linie sein könnte. Darauf beruhen einige der "unmöglichen" Gebilde, die der niederländische Maler und Grafiker Maurits C. Escher so vortrefflich entworfen hat. Man kann diese unmöglich erscheinenden Gegenstände sogar nachbauen. Es genügt, einige der geraden Linien unter Erhaltung der Blickrichtung etwas zu verbiegen. Aber: Das funktioniert natürlich nur mit einer einzigen, festen Blickrichtung. Eine winzige Kopfbewegung des Betrachters verrät den Trickund hier versteckt sich das tiefere Geheimnis hinter dieser Regel. Unser geistiges Auge akzeptiert nur Interpretationen, die stabil gegenüber zufälligen Variationen sind. Allerdings: Die 34 Regeln, die uns der Autor verrät, und einige weitere sind nur Ansatz eines Verständnisses; wie genau das visuelle System zu seiner Konstruktion der Welt kommt, ist noch größtenteils unbekannt und Gegenstand aktueller, spannender Forschung. Wer immer sich mit dem Thema "Wahrnehmung" beschäftigt, stößt unweigerlich auf die Frage des Zusammenhangs zwischen Gesehenem und Konstruiertem und damit nach dein Wesen des Bewusstseins. Auch Hoffman nimmt sich im letzten Kapitel seines Buches dieser Frage an - vorsichtig und geschickterweise, ohne sich richtig festzulegen. Bislang seien alle drei Grundkonzepte des Verhältnisses zwischeu "Welt" und Erlebtem mit den gegenwärtigen Erkenntnissen der Naturwissenschalt verträglich: der Physikalismus, in dem alles Wirkliche physischer Natur ist, der Dualismus, in dem es eine Unterscheidung zwischen bewussten und unbewussten Dingen gibt, und der Idealismus, in dem schließlich alles beseelt ist. Darüber kann man vortrefflich streiten, und nach der Lektüre dieses Buches hat man reichlich Stoff dafür.
Content
Originaltitel: Visual intelligence. How we create what we see.
Footnote
Rez. in: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 2001, H.3, S.106 (R.D. Henkel)
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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  4. Singer, W.: Neurobiologische Anmerkungen zum Konstruktivismus-Diskurs (2002) 0.18
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  5. Eggers, D.: ¬Der Circle : Roman (2015) 0.18
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