Document (#23731)

Author
Deussen, N.
Title
Sogar der Mars könnte bald eine virutelle Heimat bekommen : Gut 4,2 Milliarden sind nicht genug: Die sechste Version des Internet-Protokolls schafft viele zusätzliche Online-Adressen
Source
Frankfurter Rundschau. Nr.79 vom 3.4.2001, S.29
Year
2001
Abstract
In der Virtualität wird's eng. Die Möglichkeiten des Scheinbaren sind anscheinend ausgereizt. Es mangelt bald an InternetAdressen. Wenn WhirIpools und Wasclunaschinen ihren eigenen Zugang zum Internet brauchen, wird der Vorrat an Kennzahlen knapp. Um dem drohenden Mangel zu begegnen, wird seit Jahren an einer überarbeiteten Fassung des Internet-Protokolls (IP) gebastelt. Doch die Neuauflage hat bis auf ein paar Testläufe - bisher ihren Weg ins Netz noch nicht gefunden. Für Aufregung sorgte sie dennoch bereits: wegen Datenschutzproblemen. Für die Kommunikation zwischen Computern im Internet gibt es eine Art Knigge. Die protokollarische Vorschrift legt fest; wie die Rechner Daten untereinander austauschen. Doch zuvor brauchen die Maschinen Namen (wie www.fr-aktuell.de) und Anschriften (hier: 194.175.173.20), damit sie sich einander vorstellen (Shake Hands) und später Daten schicken können. Vergeben werden die Bezeichnungen von der Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Icann). Den ersten Vorschlag für eine einheitliche Übergaberegelung machten Bob Kahn und Vint Cerf im Jahr 1974. Damals versuchten im inzwischen legendären, militärisch genutzten Arpanet kaum tausend Großrechner an etwa 250 Standorten miteinander zu kommunizieren. Um Ordnung in das Sprachengewirr der verschiedenen Bautypen zu bringen, mussten Regeln her. Die Idee entwickelte sich zum Protokoll, das nach Informatik-Manier mit dem Kürzel TCP/IP belegt wurde. Mit etwa 100000 angeschlossenen Computern wurde das Netz 1983 zivil - und TCP/IP zum offiziellen Standard. Derzeit regelt die vierte Version des Internet-Protokolls (IPv4) den Bit-Transport. Die Adresse wird jedem Datenpaket vorangestellt. Sie besteht aus Ziffern und ist exakt 32 Bit lang. Daraus ergeben sich mehr als 4,2 Milliarden Zahlenkombinationen. Genug für einen Globus, auf dem erst kürzlich der sechsmilliardste Erdenbürger das Licht der realen Welt erblickte - dachten die Computer-Operateure damals. Dann kam das World Wide Web.
Der Geniestreich aus dem Europäischen Labor für Teilchenphysik (Cern) in Genf machte aus dem Wissenschaftsnetz ein Massenmedium. Zudem erfuhr die elektronische Post einen Aufschwung. Das Wachstum der Netze sprengt alle Erwartungen", resümiert Klaus Birkenbihl vom InformatikForschungszentrum GMI). Jede Web-Site, jede E-Mail-Box, jeder Computer, der per Standleitung online ist, braucht eine eindeutige Identifizierung. Die Schätzungen, wie viele IPv4-Adressen noch frei sind, schwanken zwischen 40 und zehn Prozent. Der Verbrauch jedenfalls steigt rasant: Die Anzahl der WebSites steuert derzeit auf eine Milliarde zu, weit mehr Netznummern gehen bereits für E-Mail-Anschriften drauf. Den Adressraum weiter ausschöpfen werden demnächst die intelligenten Haushaltsgeräte. Der Laden an der Ecke will wissen, welcher Kühlschrank die Milch bestellt hat, die Videozentrale braucht für das Überspielen des Films die Kennung des PC-Recorders, der Computer des Installateurs benötigt die IP-Anschrift der Heizungsanlage für die Fernwartung. Handys, die später Nachrichten übers Internet schicken, und Internet-Telefonie gehen möglicherweise leer aus. Doch bevor Internet-Adressen zur heiß begehrten Schieberware werden, soll ein neues Adresssystern mit mehr Möglichkeiten her. Schon 1990 hatte sich die Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Gedanken über einen neues Internet-Protokoll mit einem größeren Adressangebot gemacht. Im IETF kümmern sich Forscher, Soft- und HardwareIngenieure um die fortlaufende Verbesserung von Architektur und Arbeit des Netz werks. Eine ihrer Arbeitsgruppen prognostizierte, der IPv4-Vorrat gehe 2005 zu Ende. Fünf Jahre dauerte es, dann waren sich alle Internet-Gremien einig: Eine neue Protokollversion, IPv6, muss her. Dann passierte weiter nichts. Endlich verkündete 1999 Josh Elliot von der Icann, ab sofort würden neue Anschriften verteilt. Ein historischer Moment", freute er sich.
Der neue 128-Bit-Header treibt die Möglichkeiten ins Astronomische: 3,4 mal zehn hoch 38 Adressen, eine 3,4 mit 38 Nullen. -Das IPv6-Forum zerhackte den Zahlentrumm in anschauliche Stücke: Pro Quadratmillimeter Erdoberfläche stehen nun zirka 667 Billiarden, pro Mensch 6,5 mal zehn hoch 28 Adressen, bereit." Eine Billiarde bringt es immerhin auf respektable 15 Nullen. Schon kurz darauf ging ein Aufschrei durch die Netzgemeinde. Das neue Protokoll schrieb die weltweit eindeutigen Seriennummern bestimmter Netzwerkkarten auf den virtuellen Adressaufkleber. Die Ethernet-Adapter bewerkstelligen den Datentransport bei Computern, die über eine Standleitung, ein Koaxialkabel, dauernd online sind. Die Spur von Ethernet-Usern wäre damit leicht zu verfolgen gewesen, ihre Nutzerprofile, ihre Surfgewohnheiten einsehbar wie offene Bücher. Das Problem, ließ Icann nun wissen, sei behoben: Es gebe keine festen Kennzahlen mehr in den Adressköpfen. Bei jedem Hochfahren eines Rechners oder sogar noch öfter werden die Nummern neu durchgemischt", erläutert Hans Petter Dittler, stellvertretender Vorsitzender der deutschen Sektion der Internet Society. Das Betriebssystem Linux kann bereits mit dem IPv6 arbeiten. Microsoft will den Standard in das nächste Windows-Betriebssystem einbauen: "Wir denken, der vorgeschlagene Standard ist wichtig zum Schutz der Privatsphäre der Internet-Nutzer", sagt Jawad Khaki, Vizepräsident für Netzwerke. Seit einigen Tagen steht auf der Microsoft-Homepage eine Vorab-Version von lPv6 für Windows 2000 zum Herunterladen bereit. Geradezu euphorisch gibt sich Protokoll-Chef Vint Cerf. Mit IPv6 haben wir die Grundlage dafür", philosophierte der Internet-Daddy auf dem ersten lPv6-Kongress 1999 in Berlin, "das Internet von unserem Planeten über den Mars und die Asteroiden bis in den Weltraum hinaus auszudehnen." Doch im Internet-Alltag wird das alte Protokoll noch lange Vorrang haben. Grund sind handfeste Programmier-Probleme. Denn Software, die sich explizit auf die vierte IP-Version bezieht, muss umgeschrieben werden - etwa um mit den längeren Adressfeldern umgehen zu können. Hubert Martens vom Münchner Multinet Services befürchtet gar einen InternetCrash: "Das Jahr-2000-Problem war harmlos gegen das, was uns mit lPv6 droht."
Theme
Internet
Datenfernübertragung
Object
TCP/IP

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  3. Blittkowsky, R.: ¬Das World Wide Web gleicht einer Fliege : Studien versuchen zu erklären, warum Suchmaschinen nicht immer fündig werden (2001) 0.23
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  4. Bayer, M.: Schulen ans Netz (2001) 0.22
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  5. Charlier, M.: DNS und TLD (2001) 0.21
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