Document (#23739)

Author
Krüger, S.
Title
Wissen ist Macht : Portale weisen den Weg und öffnen Türen
Source
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Nr.67 vom 20.3.2001, S.B37
Year
2001
Series
CeBIT 2001
Abstract
Grafische Benutzeroberflächen sind out - Portale sind wegweisend für moderne Computerarbeitsplätze in den Unternehmen. Das Einsatzgebiet reicht von Kommunikations- bis hin zu Dokumenten- und WissensmanagementLösungen. Tagtäglich werden in großen und mittleren Unternehmen umfangreiche Geschäftsdokumente produziert, E-Mails mit Lieferanten, Kunden sowie Geschäftspartnern ausgetauscht und Präsentationen für wichtige Anlässe erstellt. Mitarbeiter produzieren Informationen in Hülle und Fülle. Bei genauerer Betrachtung sind jedoch nicht alle Elemente von gleicher Bedeutung. Erst die Gewichtung, Bewertung und Anwendung des Wissens im jeweiligen Zusammenhang unterscheidet ein Unternehmen letzendlich von seinen Mitarbewerbern. Problematisch ist dabei, daß das Know-how einer Firma häufig nicht direkt zugänglich ist, weil es sich oft nur in den Köpfen der Mitarbeiter oder in unübersichtlichen Datenbanken und Dokumenten befindet. Diesen Schwierigkeiten kann mit verschiedenen Methoden begegnet werden: Mitarbeiter fahnden mit den unterschiedlichsten Software-Applikationen nach den gesuchten Informationen in E-Mail-Archiven, Datenbanken und Verzeichnissen auf Festplatten. Sie durchforsten Datenbanken und Aktenordner oder treffen zufällig am Kaffeeautomaten in der Halle einen Kollegen, der ihnen bei einem Kundenproblem weiterhelfen kann. Keine dieser Vorgehensweisen ist effizient. Die Suche in einem Ablagesystem ist zeitaufwendig und bindet wertvolle Kapazitäten. Im anderen Fall ist es vom Zufall abhängig, ob sich auf dem Flur oder am Getränkeautomat just in dem Moment ein Kollege aufhält der das Problem lösen kann. Intranets, die viele Unternehmen aufgebaut haben, um den Zugriff auf vorhandene Informationen zu verbessern, sind schon ein Schritt in die richtige Richtung. Allerdings bieten sie ausschließlich einen Überblick über die Infos, was oft nicht ausreicht. Es fehlt die individuelle Aufbereitung der Informationen im benötigten Kontext. Als Quellen beschränken sich derartige Anwendungen - ähnlich wie schon die Executive Information Systems (EIS) der, achtziger und neunziger Jahre - auf Datenbanken, die von betriebswirtschaftlicher Standardsoftware genutzt werden. Völlig außen vor bleiben jedoch wenig oder kaum strukturierte Informationsquellen wie Dokumente oder E-Mails. Diese Lücken schließen Portale, die im Umfeld von Knowledge-Management-Initiativen und -Projekten entstanden sind. Knowledge Management im Unternehmen befaßt sich mit dem Einsatz von Wissen, um Geschäftsziele zu erreichen. Darstellen läßt sich dieser Prozeß als zielgerichtete Kooperation einzelner Mitarbeiter und Teams. Als Transportmedium fungiert Software, die das vorhandene intellektuelle Kapital erfaßt, strukturiert im Kontext aufbereitet und durch geeignete Instrumente in einem Portal zugänglich macht. Dem Nutzer präsentiert sich ein Knowledge-Portal als Software in einem Browser. Von hier aus können Mitarbeiter Wissen aufspüren, gemeinsam verwenden und weiterreichen. Die Funktion eines derartigen Portals beruht auf einer Kombination von drei grundlegenden Technologien: Anwendungen, die persönliche, aber auch gemeinschaftlich genutzte Arbeitsumgebungen (Community Places) bereitstellen. Software, die im Netzwerk eine Kommunikation und Kooperation in Echtzeit ermöglicht. Persönliche Dienste in Form einer einheitlichen Benutzeroberfläche für den Zugriff auf andere DesktopProgramme, das Internet und im Unternehmen vorhandene Datenbanken. Durch die gleichzeitige Anzeige in mehreren Fenstern verschafft sich der Benutzer einen Überblick über das gesamte zur Lösung eines Problems benötigte Informationsangebot. Entwickeln lassen sich Community Places durch den Einsatz von Wissens-Schablonen, die die Werkzeuge und Methoden liefern. Wissensansichten (Portlets) sind Fenster zu Büroanwendungen, zum Beispiel Textverarbeitung. Kalkulationssoftware und E-Mail, zu Backend-Systemen, wue Personalwesen, Buchhaltung und mehr, zu Bildern Web-Seiten und anderen Formen von Geschäftswissen. Diese Individualisierbarkeit ist ein wichtiges Merkmal von Knowledge-Portalen und unterscheidet sie von Ansätzen, die nur wenige Anpassungsfunktionen und eine unflexible Benutzeroberfläche bieten. Schablonen versetzen Unternehmen in die Lage, die ihren Geschäftsaktivitäten angemessenen Wissensansichten rasch und problemlos zu entwickeln und einzusetzen. Wissensansichten präsentieren dem Anwender unterschiedlichste Inhalte, wie Kalender, Aktivitätenlisten, Datenbanken, E-Mails und andere Formen von Geschäftsinhalten. Daher eignen sich Wissensansichten hervorragend für die Präsentation von Informationen in persönlichen und gemeinschaftlich genutzten Arbeitsumgebungen. Knowledge-Portale sind eine - wenn auch wichtige - Untermenge einer umfassenden Knowledge-Management-Strategie. Im Kern geht es beim Knowledge Management um die systematische Kooperation von Einzelpersonen und Teams, die Informationen aus Dokumenten, Datenbanken sowie das Know-how von Experten gemeinsam nutzen.
Content
Mit einer Abbildung zur Visualisierung von Wissensportalen
Theme
Information Resources Management

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  4. Padovan, G.: k.portal : Swiss Re's internes Wissensportal (2001) 0.29
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  5. Dettmar, G.: Softwareunterstützung im Wissensmanagement (???) 0.28
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