Document (#23926)

Author
Pöppe, C.
Title
¬Das Ende von Eric Weissteins mathematischer Schatzkiste
Source
Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2001, H.6, S.110
Year
2001
Abstract
Eine der populärsten unter den Websites mit wissenschaftlichem Inhalt existiert zur Zeit nur als Traueran zeige. Auf http://mathworld.wolfram.com informiert Wolfram Research Inc. seine Besucher, dass Eric Weissteins MathWorld" auf Grund einer gerichtlichen Verfügung nicht allgemein zugänglich gemacht werden darf. Dies ist der derzeitige Stand einer Geschichte, die ohne das Internet undenkbar wäre und selbst für dessen Verhältnisse außergewöhnlich ist. Eric Weisstein, von seiner Ausbildung her eigentlich Astronom, hatte seit Studienzeiten gewohnheitsmäßig alle Mathematik, die ihm über den Weg lief, in kurzen Notizen zusammengefasst. Mit dem Aufkommen des World Wide Web verwandelte er seine Aufzeichnungen in eine Sammlung von Artikeln zu einzelnen Stichwörtem und stellte sie, versehen mit einem dichten Netz von Querverweisen, ins Internet. Sie wuchs ständig, auch durch E-Mail-Beiträge zahlreicher Nutzer, und wurde sehr bald zur meistgefragten mathematischen Website überhaupt. Über die Jahre hat Weisstein eine unglaubliche Menge an Stoff zusammengetragen. Durch einen einfachen Test ist das mühelos nachzuprüfen: Man frage eine Suchmaschine nach einem beliebigen mathematischen Begriff (in englischer Sprache), ich wette, unter den ersten zehn Verweisen ist einer auf Weisstein, und häufig ist es der einzig brauchbare. - Ein Lexikon für Gardner-Fans - Auswahl und Umfang der Beiträge sind stark von Weissteins persönlichem Geschmack geprägt: Über die Zahl PI bringt er das Äquivalent von mehr als zehn Druckseiten, er rechnet uns die Fouriertransformation mehrerer spezieller Funktionen auf ebenfalls mehreren Seiten detailliert vor, und er hat einen starken Hang zur Unterhaltungsmathematik.
Dabei sieht er sich in der Tradition von Martin Gardners legendären "Mathematical Games" aus dem "Scientific American". So finden sich die Polyominos (verallgemeinerte Dominosteine), die GolombLineale und andere Klassiker wieder, und immer wieder stößt man auf die ausgefallensten Polyeder (Vielflächner) mit Bild und griechischem Bandwurmnamen. Dagegen sind zum Beispiel Grundbegriffe von Funktionalanalysis und Integrationstheorie knapp bis lieblos und häufig fehlerhaft abgehandelt.Seit 1999 liegt sein Werk in gedruckter Form vor, als "CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics". Und das war der Anfang vom - vorläufigen Ende der Website. Mittlerweile streitet man sich vor Gericht, ob Weisstein dem Verlag CRC mit dem Copyright an der gedruckten Ausgabe auch das Recht an der weitaus älteren und weiter wachsenden Website verkauft hat. Weisstein ist mittlerweile Angestellter von Wolfram Research Inc., dem Hersteller der mathematischen Universalsoftware "Mathematica" (Spektrum der Wissenschaft 2/2000, S. 100). Nach einigem Hin und Her hinter den Kulissen stellte Wolfram Weissteins Material, das dieser inzwischen weiterentwickelt hatte, unter dem Namen "MathWorld" ins Netz und fing sich damit eine Urheberrechtsklage von CRC ein. Der Fall ist in der Hauptsache noch nicht entschieden - man verhandelt über einen Vergleich; aber die Begründung der am 23. Oktober 2000 ergangenen einstweiligen Verfügung zur Schließung der Website lässt Schlimmes befürchten. Niemand bestreitet, dass die Website zuerst da war und das gedruckte Werk von dieser abgeleitet ist.
Aber, so das zuständige Bezirksgericht, ein eigenständiges Copyright für ein abgeleitetes Werk ("derivative work") entsteht erst dadurch, dass sich dieses durch Zusätze oder herausgeberische Bemühungen irgendwelcher Art wesentlich ("substantially") vorn Original unterscheidet. Also ist die Website rechtlich dasselbe wie das gedruckte Werk, und das Copyright, das Weisstein an CRC abgetreten hat, erstreckt sich, dem Wortlaut des Vertrages und jedem vernünftigen Denken zuwider, auch auf sein Lebenswerk, die Website. - Juristische Purzelbäume - Bei der Güterabwägung über die Folgen seiner Verfügung bewertete das Gericht den Schaden für CRC durch entgehende Einnahmen aus Verkäufen höher als den Schaden, der Wolfram durch die Sperrung der Website entsteht; denn Wolfram nimmt ja kein Geld für die Website! Und der Nachteil für die Öffentlichkeit dadurch, dass sie nicht mehr kostenlos auf Weissteins Werke zugreifen könne, werde weit überwogen durch den Schaden, welcher der Öffentlichkeit durch eine Aufweichung der Urheberrechtsprinzipien entstünde. Immerhin sei jedermann frei, sich die Informationen via Buch oder CDRom für 99 Dollar zu beschaffen. Unabhängig von den Einzelheiten dieses Rechtsstreits (die man über einen Link in http://mathworld.wolfram.corn nachlesen kann) glaube ich: Das Motiv, die Welt mit den Ergebnissen der eigenen Arbeit zu beglücken, ohne von der Welt dafür mehr zu verlangen als den Ruhm und - hoffentlich - einen öffentlich oder privat gesponserten Arbeitsvertrag, ist legitim und rechtlich nicht geringer zu bewerten als ein finanzielles Interesse. Die wissenschaftliche Welt arbeitet seit jeher nach diesem Prinzip. Es ist kurzsichtig und auf die Dauer kontraproduktiv, wenn die kommerziellen Verlage sich dagegen zu stemmen versuchen, nur weil das Weltbeglücken technisch so viel einfacher geworden ist
Footnote
Vgl. auch http://mathworld.wolfram.com
Theme
Internet
Field
Mathematik

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  4. Ulfkotte, U.: "Nackte Ehefrau" schaltet ab : Neues Computervirus löscht die Festplatte (2001) 0.20
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