Document (#24515)

Author
Swanson, D.R.
Smalheiser, N.R.
Bookstein, A.
Title
Information discovery from complementary literatures : categorizing viruses as potential weapons
Source
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.10, S.797-812
Year
2001
Abstract
Using novel informatics techniques to process the Output of Medline searches, we have generated a list of viruses that may have the potential for development as weapons. Our findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that might then lead to appropriate defense and public health measures. This article stresses methods that are more generally relevant to information science. Initial Medline searches identified two kinds of virus literaturesthe first concerning the genetic aspects of virulence, and the second concerning the transmission of viral diseases. Both literatures taken together are of central importance in identifying research relevant to the development of biological weapons. Yet, the two literatures had very few articles in common. We downloaded the Medline records for each of the two literatures and used a computer to extract all virus terms common to both. The fact that the resulting virus list includes most of an earlier independently published list of viruses considered by military experts to have the highest threat as potential biological weapons served as a test of the method; the test outcome showed a high degree of statistical significance, thus supporting an inference that the new viruses an the list share certain important characteristics with viruses of known biological
Theme
Informetrie
Field
Mikrobiologie

Similar documents (author)

  1. Swanson, D.R.; Smalheiser, N.R.: Implicit text linkages between Medline records : using arrowsmith as an aid to scientific discovery (1999) 3.59
    3.5884337 = sum of:
      3.5884337 = product of:
        5.3826504 = sum of:
          2.0477045 = weight(author_txt:swanson in 5990) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.0477045 = score(doc=5990,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49681532 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.121661 = fieldWeight in 5990, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5990)
          3.3349462 = weight(author_txt:smalheiser in 5990) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.3349462 = score(doc=5990,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.68771636 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1765413 = boost
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.8493047 = fieldWeight in 5990, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5990)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  2. Bookstein, A.; Swanson, D.R.: Probabilistic models for automatic indexing (1974) 2.87
    2.8665788 = sum of:
      2.8665788 = product of:
        4.299868 = sum of:
          2.0477045 = weight(author_txt:swanson in 5466) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.0477045 = score(doc=5466,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49681532 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.121661 = fieldWeight in 5466, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5466)
          2.2521636 = weight(author_txt:bookstein in 5466) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.2521636 = score(doc=5466,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.52935874 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0322325 = boost
                8.509026 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.254513 = fieldWeight in 5466, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.509026 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5466)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  3. Bookstein, A.; Swanson, D.R.: ¬A decision theoretic foundation for indexing (1975) 2.87
    2.8665788 = sum of:
      2.8665788 = product of:
        4.299868 = sum of:
          2.0477045 = weight(author_txt:swanson in 145) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.0477045 = score(doc=145,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49681532 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.121661 = fieldWeight in 145, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=145)
          2.2521636 = weight(author_txt:bookstein in 145) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.2521636 = score(doc=145,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.52935874 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0322325 = boost
                8.509026 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              4.254513 = fieldWeight in 145, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.509026 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=41962)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=145)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  4. Swanson, D.R.; Smalheiser, N.R.; Torvik, V.I.: Ranking indirect connections in literature-based discovery : the role of Medical Subject Headings (2006) 2.69
    2.6913257 = sum of:
      2.6913257 = product of:
        4.0369883 = sum of:
          1.5357783 = weight(author_txt:swanson in 1004) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.5357783 = score(doc=1004,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49681532 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              3.091246 = fieldWeight in 1004, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=1004)
          2.5012097 = weight(author_txt:smalheiser in 1004) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.5012097 = score(doc=1004,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.68771636 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1765413 = boost
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              3.6369786 = fieldWeight in 1004, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=1004)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  5. Torvik, V.I.; Weeber, M.; Swanson, D.R.; Smalheiser, N.R.: ¬A probabilistic similarity metric for medline mecords : a model for author name disambiguation (2005) 2.24
    2.2427711 = sum of:
      2.2427711 = product of:
        3.3641567 = sum of:
          1.2798153 = weight(author_txt:swanson in 4309) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.2798153 = score(doc=4309,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49681532 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              2.5760384 = fieldWeight in 4309, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.243322 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=41962)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=4309)
          2.0843413 = weight(author_txt:smalheiser in 4309) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.0843413 = score(doc=4309,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.68771636 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1765413 = boost
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.060268823 = queryNorm
              3.0308154 = fieldWeight in 4309, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.698609 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=41962)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=4309)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Aringhieri, R.; Damiani, E.; De Capitani di Vimercati, S.; Paraboschi, S.; Samarati, P.: Fuzzy techniques for trust and reputation management in anonymous peer-to-peer systems (2006) 0.10
    0.10470251 = sum of:
      0.10470251 = product of:
        0.52351254 = sum of:
          0.01241945 = weight(abstract_txt:both in 280) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01241945 = score(doc=280,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.041386478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0219203 = boost
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.30008474 = fieldWeight in 280, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=280)
          0.012665728 = weight(abstract_txt:development in 280) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.012665728 = score(doc=280,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.041931815 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0286311 = boost
                3.8663082 = idf(docFreq=2387, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.30205533 = fieldWeight in 280, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.8663082 = idf(docFreq=2387, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=280)
          0.011283934 = weight(abstract_txt:have in 280) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011283934 = score(doc=280,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.044442076 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.296972 = boost
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.25390205 = fieldWeight in 280, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=280)
          0.0076901116 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 280) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0076901116 = score(doc=280,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.040806122 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6044289 = boost
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.18845485 = fieldWeight in 280, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=280)
          0.47945333 = weight(abstract_txt:viruses in 280) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.47945333 = score(doc=280,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6416051 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.3619714 = boost
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.7472717 = fieldWeight in 280, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=280)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  2. Waldrop, M.M.: Intelligent agents prepare to sift the riches of cyberspace (1997) 0.10
    0.09630964 = sum of:
      0.09630964 = product of:
        0.80258036 = sum of:
          0.018054295 = weight(abstract_txt:have in 2197) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018054295 = score(doc=2197,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.044442076 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.296972 = boost
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.4062433 = fieldWeight in 2197, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=2197)
          0.017400736 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2197) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.017400736 = score(doc=2197,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.040806122 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6044289 = boost
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.42642465 = fieldWeight in 2197, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=2197)
          0.7671253 = weight(abstract_txt:viruses in 2197) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.7671253 = score(doc=2197,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6416051 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.3619714 = boost
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              1.1956347 = fieldWeight in 2197, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.565078 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=2197)
        0.12 = coord(3/25)
    
  3. McKinin, E.J.; Sievert, M.E.; Johnson, D.; Mitchell, J.A.: ¬The Medline/full-text research project (1991) 0.06
    0.062262587 = sum of:
      0.062262587 = product of:
        0.25942746 = sum of:
          0.030983979 = weight(abstract_txt:relevant in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030983979 = score(doc=6799,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.0612512 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2432117 = boost
                4.672851 = idf(docFreq=1065, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.505851 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.672851 = idf(docFreq=1065, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
          0.009027148 = weight(abstract_txt:have in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.009027148 = score(doc=6799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.044442076 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.296972 = boost
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.20312165 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
          0.022840818 = weight(abstract_txt:test in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022840818 = score(doc=6799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07208939 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3487252 = boost
                5.0694437 = idf(docFreq=716, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.31684023 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0694437 = idf(docFreq=716, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
          0.024724945 = weight(abstract_txt:searches in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.024724945 = score(doc=6799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.076001205 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.384835 = boost
                5.205169 = idf(docFreq=625, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.32532308 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.205169 = idf(docFreq=625, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
          0.008700368 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.008700368 = score(doc=6799,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.040806122 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6044289 = boost
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.21321233 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
          0.1631502 = weight(abstract_txt:medline in 6799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1631502 = score(doc=6799,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.19281127 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7014668 = boost
                6.7693224 = idf(docFreq=130, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.8461653 = fieldWeight in 6799, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.7693224 = idf(docFreq=130, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=6799)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  4. Brooks, T.A.: Relevance auras : macro patterns and micro scatter (2001) 0.06
    0.06159519 = sum of:
      0.06159519 = product of:
        0.30797595 = sum of:
          0.037239276 = weight(abstract_txt:independently in 2592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.037239276 = score(doc=2592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07926006 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.5173855 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.4698366 = fieldWeight in 2592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.5173855 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2592)
          0.009935561 = weight(abstract_txt:both in 2592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.009935561 = score(doc=2592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.041386478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0219203 = boost
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.2400678 = fieldWeight in 2592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2592)
          0.01788861 = weight(abstract_txt:relevant in 2592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01788861 = score(doc=2592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.0612512 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2432117 = boost
                4.672851 = idf(docFreq=1065, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.2920532 = fieldWeight in 2592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.672851 = idf(docFreq=1065, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2592)
          0.0061520897 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0061520897 = score(doc=2592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.040806122 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6044289 = boost
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.15076388 = fieldWeight in 2592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2592)
          0.23676042 = weight(abstract_txt:literatures in 2592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23676042 = score(doc=2592,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.34271753 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1588283 = boost
                7.8158784 = idf(docFreq=45, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.69083256 = fieldWeight in 2592, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.8158784 = idf(docFreq=45, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2592)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Spasser, M.A.: ¬The enacted fate of undiscovered public knowledge (1997) 0.05
    0.054597437 = sum of:
      0.054597437 = product of:
        0.341234 = sum of:
          0.01241945 = weight(abstract_txt:both in 612) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01241945 = score(doc=612,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.041386478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0219203 = boost
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.30008474 = fieldWeight in 612, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.8410847 = idf(docFreq=2448, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=612)
          0.019544348 = weight(abstract_txt:have in 612) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019544348 = score(doc=612,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.044442076 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.296972 = boost
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.43977126 = fieldWeight in 612, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.2499464 = idf(docFreq=4422, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=612)
          0.013319664 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 612) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013319664 = score(doc=612,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.040806122 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6044289 = boost
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.32641336 = fieldWeight in 612, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                2.4122221 = idf(docFreq=10221, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=612)
          0.29595053 = weight(abstract_txt:literatures in 612) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.29595053 = score(doc=612,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.34271753 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1588283 = boost
                7.8158784 = idf(docFreq=45, maxDocs=41962)
                0.010543567 = queryNorm
              0.8635407 = fieldWeight in 612, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.8158784 = idf(docFreq=45, maxDocs=41962)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=612)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)