Document (#24712)

Author
Lutz, R.
Green, S.
Title
Data stewardship : the care and handling of named entries
Source
Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods
Imprint
Medford, NJ : Information Today
Year
1999
Pages
S.546
Series
Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36
Abstract
Named entities, such as personal names and names of organizations, exhibit much more variation in form than do other lexical items. The token "vase" can refer to any entity from the type VASE, but the form of the word (i.e., the spelling) is conventionalized and invariant. In contrast, a name may appear with elements added, missing, substituted or re-ordered, yet the reference remains fixed. Thus "Toni Morrison" may be represented as "T. Morrison", "Ms. Morrison", "Morrison, T." or simply "Morrison." And, given the many-to-many relationship of sound to symbol in orthography, one pronunciation may map to a number of possible spellings: e.g., "Tony Maurissan". Individuals claim "ownership" of their names, but beyond the individual or family, they have little control over how others pronounce or spell their name. The link between the individual and name is readily lost. A number of factors contribute to the loss of the one-to-one mapping between names and individuals. The range of variation of names necessitates that many unfamiliar names are encountered on a regular basis. Unfamiliar names will be pronounced, transcribed, and formatted incorrectly, often in a manner that changes the name into a form more familiar to the person responsible. In a multi-cultural or international environment, errors in spelling, pronunciation, and format are further exacerbated due to more fundamental dimensions of unfamiliarity. Grafting names into the rigid structures of inflexible information systems leads to additional sources of unintended variation and compromise. Large name databases are thus established in which traditional exact match searching is wholly inadequate. Retrieval must identify names that are similar in form and that are likely to be related to the search name. This paper lays out a vision for the universal respect and proper treatment of personal names. We argue that known sources of name variation and error must be addressed through improved retrieval techniques specific to the problems of personal names. But moreover, we argue for a culture of data stewardship in which fewer errors are introduced in the handling of personal names. This can be achieved through greater awareness of problems specific to the handling of names, and to the design of information systems that accommodate a richer conception of what a personal name can be. We detail the factors known to complicate the treatment of personal names, and outline a model of the personal name that encompasses the diversity found in names around the globe. The model can serve as a basis for implementing our vision. In addition, in service of improved retrieval we propose measures of similarity of names based on phonological and syntactic factors based on cultural and linguistic variation

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