Document (#25132)

Author
Rademaker, C.A.
Title
¬The classification of ornamental designs in the United States Patent Classification System
Source
Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the 6th International ISKO-Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada. Ed.: C. Beghtol et al
Imprint
Würzburg : Ergon
Year
2000
Pages
S.275-281
Series
Advances in knowledge organization; vol.7
Abstract
Industrial design is the professional discipline that creates pleasing, aesthetic shapes and appearances for mass-produced articles and consumer goods. This profession has grown in importance in recent decades as the science of introducing innovative ornamental designs for mass-produced articles has developed into a highly successful marketing tool. Businesses have recognized that profits can be enhanced by the introduction of improved ornamental designs. Consequently, in the modern market place an enormous variety of innovative ornamental designs is available to consumers for practically all articles of mass manufacture including vehicles, furniture, packaging, communication devices, luggage and apparel. As the availability of consumer goods becomes commonplace throughout the world, the profession of industrial design is becoming increasingly active and important. The significance of innovative ornamental designs to the field of business commerce has been long-recognized by intellectual property offices throughout the world. Most governments have established statutory means that permit designers to protect new ornamental designs. However, as large numbers of ornamental designs are granted statutory protection, intellectual property offices are faced with the challenge of organizing the images of these designs in a format that permits efficient access and decimation. The classification of ornamental images is a difficult problem: as the number of new designs produced each year grows, efficient access to protected designs has become an increasingly complicated task. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has provided statutory protection for ornamental designs since 1844. To date, more than 400,000 industrial designs havebeen granted patented statutory protection which is known as a design patent. In order to permit efficient storage and retrieval to the collection of design patents, the USPTO has developed a classification system that is directed to ornamental appearance of industrial designs
Field
Patentinformation

Similar documents (content)

  1. Thompson, N.J.: Intellectual property materials online/CD-ROM : what and where (1992) 0.12
    0.11815122 = sum of:
      0.11815122 = product of:
        0.49229676 = sum of:
          0.08438011 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08438011 = score(doc=579,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.068978384 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.2232834 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
          0.06889682 = weight(abstract_txt:states in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06889682 = score(doc=579,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07592109 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0491189 = boost
                5.8668327 = idf(docFreq=328, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.90747935 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.8668327 = idf(docFreq=328, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
          0.008282165 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.008282165 = score(doc=579,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.031621482 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0705442 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.26191577 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
          0.07872361 = weight(abstract_txt:united in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07872361 = score(doc=579,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.082978636 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.096798 = boost
                6.1334615 = idf(docFreq=251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.9487214 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.1334615 = idf(docFreq=251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
          0.13309622 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13309622 = score(doc=579,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.09346811 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1640595 = boost
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.4239748 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
          0.11891782 = weight(abstract_txt:patent in 579) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11891782 = score(doc=579,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15755591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8510001 = boost
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.75476587 = fieldWeight in 579, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=579)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  2. Walden, I.: Electronic documentation and the law (1993) 0.12
    0.11702481 = sum of:
      0.11702481 = product of:
        0.7314051 = sum of:
          0.048217207 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 1056) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.048217207 = score(doc=1056,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.068978384 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.6990191 = fieldWeight in 1056, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1056)
          0.07605498 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 1056) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07605498 = score(doc=1056,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09346811 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1640595 = boost
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.81369984 = fieldWeight in 1056, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1056)
          0.16857125 = weight(abstract_txt:protection in 1056) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16857125 = score(doc=1056,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18188536 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9887857 = boost
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.9267994 = fieldWeight in 1056, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1056)
          0.43856165 = weight(abstract_txt:statutory in 1056) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.43856165 = score(doc=1056,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.37868267 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.3135703 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.1581244 = fieldWeight in 1056, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1056)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  3. Vacek, G.: Japanese patent information (1994) 0.10
    0.1036161 = sum of:
      0.1036161 = product of:
        0.64760065 = sum of:
          0.011831665 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 1773) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011831665 = score(doc=1773,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.031621482 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0705442 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.37416542 = fieldWeight in 1773, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=1773)
          0.13083398 = weight(abstract_txt:innovative in 1773) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13083398 = score(doc=1773,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.132378 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6966685 = boost
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.9883363 = fieldWeight in 1773, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=1773)
          0.24025029 = weight(abstract_txt:patent in 1773) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.24025029 = score(doc=1773,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.15755591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8510001 = boost
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.5248574 = fieldWeight in 1773, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=1773)
          0.26468474 = weight(abstract_txt:industrial in 1773) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.26468474 = score(doc=1773,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.23305993 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5995147 = boost
                7.268441 = idf(docFreq=80, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.1356939 = fieldWeight in 1773, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.268441 = idf(docFreq=80, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=1773)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  4. White, M.J.: Patents and patent searching (2009) 0.10
    0.1015894 = sum of:
      0.1015894 = product of:
        0.50794697 = sum of:
          0.00836625 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 860) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.00836625 = score(doc=860,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.031621482 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0705442 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.2645749 = fieldWeight in 860, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=860)
          0.022056654 = weight(abstract_txt:classification in 860) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022056654 = score(doc=860,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07058213 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4305593 = boost
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.3124963 = fieldWeight in 860, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=860)
          0.12987563 = weight(abstract_txt:offices in 860) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12987563 = score(doc=860,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.14498846 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.449807 = boost
                8.107542 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.8957653 = fieldWeight in 860, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.107542 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=860)
          0.09282451 = weight(abstract_txt:granted in 860) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09282451 = score(doc=860,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14602709 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4549906 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.6356664 = fieldWeight in 860, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=860)
          0.25482392 = weight(abstract_txt:patent in 860) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.25482392 = score(doc=860,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.15755591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8510001 = boost
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.6173555 = fieldWeight in 860, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=860)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Cetintas, S.; Si, L.: Effective query generation and postprocessing strategies for prior art patent search (2012) 0.09
    0.088593215 = sum of:
      0.088593215 = product of:
        0.3691384 = sum of:
          0.029832873 = weight(abstract_txt:intellectual in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029832873 = score(doc=2072,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.068978384 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.43249598 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.5921526 = idf(docFreq=432, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
          0.005856375 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.005856375 = score(doc=2072,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.031621482 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0705442 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.18520242 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
          0.047056615 = weight(abstract_txt:property in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047056615 = score(doc=2072,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.09346811 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1640595 = boost
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.50345105 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.5095987 = idf(docFreq=172, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
          0.015439658 = weight(abstract_txt:classification in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.015439658 = score(doc=2072,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07058213 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4305593 = boost
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.21874742 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
          0.19720292 = weight(abstract_txt:patent in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19720292 = score(doc=2072,freq=11.0), product of:
              0.15755591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8510001 = boost
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              1.2516377 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                3.3166249 = tf(freq=11.0), with freq of:
                  11.0 = termFreq=11.0
                6.900717 = idf(docFreq=116, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
          0.07374992 = weight(abstract_txt:protection in 2072) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07374992 = score(doc=2072,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18188536 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9887857 = boost
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012334854 = queryNorm
              0.40547475 = fieldWeight in 2072, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2072)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)