Document (#25612)

Author
Volpers, H.
Title
Idee und Begriff der Enzyklopädie im Wandel der Zeit
Source
Enzyklopädie im Wandel: Schmuckstück der Bücherwand, rotierende Scheibe oder Netzangebot. Hrsg.: H. Rösch
Imprint
Köln : FH Köln, Fachbereich Informationswissenschaft
Year
2002
Pages
S.5-35
Series
Kölner Arbeitspapiere zur Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft; Bd.32
Abstract
Im allgemeinen Sprachverständnis handelt es sich bei einer Enzyklopädie um eine spezifische Form von Lexika. Dies stellt eine Verengung des Begriffs "Enzyklopädie" auf seine Entsprechung in Buchform dar, die jedoch in zeitgenössischer Sichtweise völlig unproblematisch erscheint. Wer heute von einem enzyklopädischen Wissen spricht oder Jemanden als enzyklopädisch gebildet bezeichnet, konnotiert hiermit zwangsläufig ein Wissen, das seine Entsprechung in eben jener Ansammlung von Fakten finden könnte, die als die Enzyklopädie - in Form des Buches - bekannt und vertraut ist. Die Benutzung einer Enzyklopädie ist eine selbstverständliche und notwendige Routine geistiger Arbeit. Faktenwissen als abrufbarer, aggregierter Datenbestand wird gegenwärtig mit enzyklopädischem Wissen gleichgesetzt. Derjenige, der zur Aktivierung dieses Wissens keinen externen Speicher, außerhalb des eigenen Gehirns benötigt, die Enzyklopädie also im Kopf hat, besitzt nach landläufiger Meinung eine hohe Allgemeinbildung. Die Wertschätzung einer solchen Fähigkeit war in den letzten Jahren mit dem Verfall bildungsbürgerlicher Ideale deutlich rückläufig. Im Moment erlebt sie - in popularisierter, ebenso naiver wie medientauglicher Form - wieder eine gewisse Renaissance, denn eine hohe Allgemeinbildung - verstanden als Verfügbarkeit über mehr oder minder fragwürdiges Faktenwissen - eröffnet Chancen, bei Günther Jauch oder in einer der zahlreichen anderen Fernsehrateshows Millionär zu werden. Das im 19. Jh. vom Leipziger Buchhändler Joseph Meyer populär gemachte Motto "Bildung macht frei!" ist im 21. Jh. zur medialen Verheißung "Bildung kann reich machen" geworden. Das gegenwärtige Verständnis vom Begriff "Enzyklopädie" als Buchgattung weicht erheblich von seiner ursprünglichen, wissenschaftstheoretischen Bedeutung ab. "Enzyklopädie" war zunächst und jahrhundertelang ein philosophischer sowie wissenschaftstheoretischer Begriff, der erst allmählich auf die Buchgattung übertragen wurde. Deren Herausbildung war allerdings mit den wissenschaftstheoretischen Bemühungen aufs engste verknüpft, da diese zumeist in einem Buch ihren Niederschlag fanden, das im Titel den Begriff "Enzyklopädie" führte. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeichnet diesen Bedeutungswandel des Begriffs vom 15. Jh. bis zur Gegenwart nach. Zuvor wird geklärt, was unter lexikographischer Perspektive die Buchgattung der Enzyklopädie von den ihr verwandten Lexikaformen unterscheidet und welchen Prinzipien der Stoffanordnung Enzyklopädien folgen.
Theme
Informationsmittel

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