Document (#26488)

Author
Ellis, R.
Hindersmann, J.
Title
Volltext- und Katalogverlinkungen in Online-Datenbanken
Source
Bibliotheksdienst. 37(2003) H.3, S.336-347
Year
2003
Abstract
Die digitale Bibliothek, in der alles mit allem verlinkt ist, und man mit wenigen Klicks zur gewünschten Information gelangt, ist nach wie vor ein Traum vieler Bibliothekare und Benutzer. In der Realität aber existieren heterogene Informationssysteme nebeneinander: Online-Datenbanken, Aggregatordatenbanken, A&I-Datenbanken, Plattformen für E-Journals, OPACs. Zwischen diesen verschiedenen Systemen muss der Nutzer nun hin- und herschalten, um die gewünschte Information zu erhalten. Dass eine Verlinkung der verschiedenen elektronischen Ressourcen der Bibliothek ein Desiderat ist, hat inzwischen auch die Industrie erkannt. Es sind bereits erste Systeme auf dem Markt, die eine Navigation in heterogenen Informationsquellen ermöglichen. Zu nennen ist hier in erster Linie ExLibris SFX. Auch EBSCO hat mit LinkSource eine auf openURL basierte Lösung vorgelegt, um alle verfügbaren Quellen in eine Suchanfrage einzubinden. Diese Systeme sind prinzipiell sehr vielversprechend und von der Bibliothek sehr komfortabel zu managen, bewegen sich aber derzeit in einem preislichen Rahmen, der von den wenigsten Bibliotheken noch zusätzlich zu den ohnehin schon hohen Kosten für elektronische Ressourcen aufgebracht werden kann. An der UB Osnabrück und SuUB Bremen wurden daher Überlegungen angestellt, wie man ohne diese kostenpflichtigen Zusatzdienste die verschiedenen elektronischen Angebote der Bibliothek besser miteinander verknüpfen könnte. Konkret lautete die Fragestellung so: "Wie komme ich nach einer Recherche in einer bibliografischen Online-Datenbank zum Volltext?" Die meisten OnlineDatenbanken sind immer noch rein bibliografische Datenbanken, die allerhöchstens ein Abstract anbieten (A&I-Datenbanken). Erscheint ein Rechercheergebnis dem Benutzer so interessant, dass er gern den Volltext des betreffenden Artikels oder des Buches einsehen möchte, so hat er dazu mehrere Möglichkeiten: Die einfachste Möglichkeit liegt darin, den Volltext in elektronischer Form aufzurufen. Besteht diese Möglichkeit nicht, so muss er im OPAC recherchieren, ob der gesuchte Titel zumindest in gedruckter Version in der Bibliothek vorhanden ist. Ist dies nicht der Fall, so hat er die Möglichkeit, den Titel per Fernleihe oder document delivery zu bestellen. Diese drei Schritte - Aufrufen des Volltextes, Recherche im OPAC, Fernleihbestellung - sollten für den Benutzer dadurch vereinfacht werden, dass ent sprechende Links in die Online-Datenbanken integriert werden. So kann das aufwändige "kopieren und einfügen"- Verfahren entfallen. Die Einrichtung dieser verschiedenen Links brachte administrative, technische und lizenzrechtliche Probleme mit sich. Online-Datenbanken werden von verschiedenen Anbietern auf den Markt gebracht: von international agierenden Firmen bis hin zu kleinen Körperschaften. Es musste bei jedem Anbieter geklärt werden, welche Verlinkungen technisch und lizenzrechtlich möglich sind. Links zum elektronischen Volltext sind für den Nutzer sicherlich die ideale Lösung, denn so kann er vom Büro oder CIP-Pool aus den Artikel lesen bzw. ausdrucken, ohne in die Bibliothek gehen und dort nach der Print-Ausgabe suchen zu müssen. Bei Volltextlinks muss man zwischen zwei Arten von Links unterscheiden: Institutionsunabhängige Links sind zentral für alle Abonnenten der Online-Datenbank eingerichtet und werden immer angezeigt, unabhängig davon, ob die Bibliothek einen lizenzierten Volltextzugriff auf die betreffende elektronische Ressource hat. Institutionsabhängige Links sind nur für die elektronischen Ressourcen eingerichtet, für die die Bibliothek einen lizenzierten Zugang besitzt.
Im Falle von institutionsunabhängigen Links werden Volltextlinks angezeigt, die allerdings nur dann funktionieren, wenn die Bibliothek auch die entsprechenden Lizenzrechte besitzt. Beim Nutzer führen diese Links schnell zu Frustration, wenn der erhoffte Volltext nicht angezeigt wird, zumal es nicht ersichtlich ist, dass der Zugang zum elektronischen Volltext von der Institution nicht lizenziert worden ist. Dem Nutzer ist dann schwer zu vermitteln, dass diese Links immer auftauchten, es aber nicht immer möglich ist, auf den elektronischen Volltext zuzugreifen. Für die Bibliothek bedeuten institutionsunabhängige Links erhöhten Erklärungsbedarf: Die Nutzer müssen darüber informiert werden, bei welchen E-Journals sie an den Volltext gelangen können. Zusätzlich kompliziert wird diese Angelegenheit noch dadurch, dass Bibliotheken in aller Regel bei verschiedenen Verlagen verschiedene Zugriffsrechte haben: entweder auf gar keine Titel, oder auf die in Print abonnierten Titel oder (durch Konsortialverträge) einen cross access auch auf die Titel, die andere Bibliotheken abonniert haben. Zusätzlich sind auch noch zeitliche Beschränkungen zu bedenken: Elsevier beispielsweise gewährt für ScienceDirect Web-Editions nur Zugriff auf die Hefte der letzten 12 Monate.
Theme
Verteilte bibliographische Datenbanken

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  4. Jutzi-Müller, U.: ¬Ein Redesign für die Virtuelle Bibliothek : die 'Bibliothek Online' an der ETH Bibliothek Zürich (2001) 0.56
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