Document (#26602)

Author
Eberlein, U.
Title
Neue Individualitätskonzepte zwischen Integration und Eigensinn : sozialwissenschaftliche und sozialphilosophische Überlegungen
Source
Gut zu Wissen: Links zur Wissensgesellschaft. Hrsg.: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, konzipiert und bearb. von Andreas Poltermann
Imprint
Münster : Verlag Westfälisches Dampfboot
Year
2002
Pages
S.131-147
Abstract
Im folgenden Beitrag möchte ich das Thema "Wissen" zu den Debatten um die Prozesse gesellschaftlicher Individualisierung in Beziehung setzen. Dabei werde ich einige der sich aus den sozialwissenschaftlichen Befunden insbesondere für die sozialphilosophische Diskussion ergebenden Probleme skizzieren und die Frage nach dem aus den Individualisierungstendenzen resultierenden politischen Potential stellen. Vielen gesellschafts- und kulturkritischen Analysen gilt die aus traditionalen Orientierungen und sozialmoralischen Milieus entlassene Lebensform radikaler Individualisierung und die damit einhergehende Auflösung der Normalerwerbsbiographie als letztlich bloß ohnmächtiges Produkt globaler ökonomischer Prozesse. Die mit ihr verbundenen Freiheits- und Selbstbestimmungserwartungen gelten diesen Kritikern als pure Ideologie: Die mit der Auflösung der traditionellen Formen der Gruppensolidarität und zunehmend auch der bisherigen Sicherungssysteme des Sozialstaats verbundenen Risiken würden ideologisch als neue Chancen und Freiheiten angepriesen. Die damit strukturell verbundenen Gefährdungen würden dagegen als individuelles Risiko und Versagen interpretiert, das die bzw. der einzelne durch individuelles Krisenmanagement zu bewältigen habe. Diese Privatisierung der eigentlich gesellschaftlich bedingten Lebensrisiken entlasse - entsprechend der herrschenden neoliberalistischen Ideologie - den Staat bzw. die Gesellschaft aus der Verantwortung und unterwerfe die einzelnen ungeschützt den ökonomischen Bedingungen und ihren Konsequenzen. Deren Übermacht über die einzelnen wiederum werde durch die strikt individualistische Zurechnung von Erfolg und Scheitern verdeckt und so gerade den Opfern des Prozesses ein höhnisches "Selber schuld!" zugerufen. Diese in der Tradition linker Kapitalismuskritik stehende Diagnose deckt sich in einigen wesentlichen Punkten mit den Thesen der sozialwissenschaftlichen Individualisierungsdebatte der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte. Diese beschreibt (vgl. etwa Beck 1986) eine fortschreitende Individualisierung gesellschaftlicher Widersprüche und Konflikte, die damit zwar ihre Form teilweise ändern, nicht aber ihre Gewalt über die einzelnen verlieren.
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