Document (#27136)

Title
Aus der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft
Source
Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie. 49(2002) H.4, S.236-240
Year
2002
Abstract
Der Bibliotheksausschuss hat sich eingehend mit dem Beschluss des Standardisierungsausschusses befasst, der sich in seiner Sitzung am 06.12.2001 mehrheitlich für einen grundsätzlichen Umstieg von RAK und MAB zu AACR und MARC ausgesprochen hatte. Der Standardisierungsausschuss hatte angeregt, vor einer endgültigen Entscheidung darüber in einer Studie die technischen, finanziellen und organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen eruieren zu lassen. In der Diskussion wurden vom Bibliotheksausschuss vor allem folgende Punkte hervorgehoben: Kosten: Bei einem Umstieg würden für die Bibliotheken und Verbünde durch die notwendigen intensiven Schulungsmaßnahmen hohe Kosten entstehen. Auf der anderen Seite seien durch die dann mögliche Übernahme von Titelaufnahmen zu ausländischen Werken, die in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken einen Umfang von ca. 30%-60% ausmachen, Einsparungen zu erzielen. Dies gelte natürlich nicht für die öffentlichen Bibliotheken. Da sie aber weiterhin für die deutsche Literatur ihre Titelaufnahmen von Der Deutschen Bibliothek beziehen könnten, sei bei ihnen der Prozentsatz der selbst zu erstellenden Titelaufnahmen gering. Bibliothekssysteme könnten zukünftig günstiger erworben werden, da keine Modifizierungen mehr für die deutschen Verhältnisse erforderlich seien. Heterogenität: Die bisherigen Versuche, die Heterogenität der Regelwerke beizubehalten und durch Metastrukturen zu überwinden, seien gescheitert. Das für diese Zwecke eigens entwickelte UNIMARC habe sich nicht durchsetzen können. Konversion: Eine rein maschinelle Konvertierung sei grundsätzlich möglich, die Titelaufnahmen würden dann aber nur Basisinformationen beinhalten, Detailinformationen gingen verloren. Die Titelaufnahmen würden aber nicht mehr den hohen Anforderungen an Nachweisinstrumente gerecht. Oualität: Da AACR ein komplexeres Regelwerk als RAK sei, würde eine Vereinfachung bei der Erstellung von Titelaufnahmen durch den Umstieg nicht erzielt. Besonderheiten der deutschen Sprache könnten aber weiterhin berücksichtigt werden, da AACR im Gegensatz zu RAKden landes-und nicht den original-sprachigen Ansatz verfolge. Diese Möglichkeit werde von vielen nicht-englischsprachigen Ländern genutzt. Auch AACR sehe die Verwendung von Normdaten vor. Umstieg oder Eigenentwicklung: Das Problem sei, dass beide Regelwerke veraltet seien. Beide seien auf Zettelkataloge ausgerichtet und nicht auf Online-Kataloge. Im Grunde müsste ein neues, den modernen Anforderungen entsprechendes Regelwerk geschaffen werden. Es sei allerdings nicht zu erwarten, dass dies von Deutschland aus geleistet werden könne. Daher sei zu überlegen, auf AACR und MARC umzusteigen und in den zuständigen Gremien an einer gemeinsamen Neuentwicklung mitzuarbeiten. Die bisherige Zusammenarbeit mit OCLC habe gezeigt, dass eine Einflussnahme von deutscher Seite aus grundsätzlich möglich ist. Nutzerperspektive: Seitens der Wissenschaftler wurde die Notwendigkeit der internationalen Öffnung der deutschen Bibliotheken mit Nachdruck hervorgehoben, damit Ergebnisse deutscher Forschungen und Publikationen deutscher Wissenschaftler auch international wahrgenommen werden können. Dies werde durch die unterschiedlichen Regelwerke bisher behindert. Aus diesem Grunde wurde für einen raschen Umstieg plädiert. Es sei vorzuziehen, eventuell nach einem Umstieg ein neues Regelwerk zusammen mit den amerikanischen Bibliotheken zu entwickeln. Aus rein finanziellen Gründen sollte aus Sicht der Wissenschaftler der Umstieg nicht abgelehnt werden. Der Bibliotheksausschuss stellte als Ergebnis seinereingehenden Beratungfest,dass dringender Handlungsbedarf hinsichtlich der internationalen Öffnung bei der Formalkatalogisierung und der Austauschformate bestehe. Da in dieser Hinsicht der Umstieg auf AACR und MARC die einzige realistische Option darstelle, sollte vor einer endgültigen Entscheidung im Rahmen einer Studie, in die sowohl Befürworter als auch Gegner eines Umstiegs eingebunden werden sollen, die ökonomischen, technischen und organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen geklärt werden.
Theme
Formalerschließung
Datenformate
Object
RAK
AACR
MAB
MARC
Location
D

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