Document (#27170)

Author
Seckel, A.
Title
Optische Illusionen
Issue
Aus dem Engl. von: Leonie Hodkevitch.
Imprint
Wien : Tosa-Verlag
Year
2004
Pages
160 S
Isbn
3-85492-434-8
Abstract
Für uns alle ist Sehen selbstverständlich. Es benötigt wenig Anstrengung. Doch das Sehen von Bildern, Objekten, Tiefen und Bewegung ist ein komplexer Prozess. Erst im letzten Jahrhundert bzw. den letzten 2O Jahren konnten Wissenschafter Fortschritte im Verstehen von Sehvermögen und Wahrnehmung erzielen. Nehmen Sie sich kurz Zeit und beobachten Sie die Welt um sich. Wenn Sie etwa den Kopf neigen, neigt sich da nicht auch die WeIt? Wenn Sie ein Auge schließen, verringert das nicht Ihre Tiefenwahrnehmung? Beachten Sie, was mit Farbe passiert, wenn Sie unterschiedlich beleuchtet wird. Gehen Sie um ein Objekt herum: Die Form verändert sich, doch die Wahrnehmung bleibt die gleiche. "Dahinterkommen" ist ein wirklich wunderbarer Vorgang. Hauptsächlich spielt sich dieser jedoch im Gehirn ab und nicht in ihrem Auge! Lichtwellen gelangen in die Augen und dringen in die fotorezeptiven Zellen der Netzhaut ein. Die Bilder, die so auf Ihrer Netzhaut entstehen, seien diese nun zwei- oder dreidimensional, werden zu flachen Darstellungen auf einer gewölbten Oberfläche. Diese bewirken eine natürliche Doppeldeutigkeit der Bilder, die auf Ihre Netzhaut gelangen. Für jedes Bild auf der Netzhaut gibt es unendlich viele Möglichkeiten für dreidimensionale Situationen, die genau dieses gleiche Bild verursachen können. Ihr Auge jedoch entscheidet sich gewöhnlich für die korrekte Interpretation. Genau das tut Ihr Gehirn: Es interpretiert! Es gibt einige sehr starke Einschränkungen, wie es dazu kommt. Außerdem muss Ihr Sehapparat die "Antwort" schnell finden. Alles in allem funktionieren diese Einschränkungen. In der realen WeIt sehen Sie nicht viele Illusionen, da Ihr Sehsystem viele Möglichkeiten kennt, Mehrdeutigkeiten auszuschließen. Viele dieser Möglichkeiten stützen sich auf die Regelmäßigkeiten der Welt, in der wir leben. Visuelle Wahrnehmung ist auf jeden Fall ein Prozess, der Mehrdeutigkeiten ausschließt. Doch Fehler können auch hier passieren. Zu Zeiten kommt es zu Illusionen, wenn das Bild, das wir aufnehmen, nicht genügend Information besitzt, um Mehrdeutigkeit auszuschließen. Es fehlen etwa wichtige Hinweise, die in der realen WeIt existieren und Mehrdeutigkeit ausschließen könnten.
Andere Illusionen entstehen, wenn ein Bild eine Einschränkung verletzt, die auf einer Regelmäßigkeit unserer WeIt basiert. Andere Illusionen treten auf, weil zwei oder mehrere Einschränkungen miteinander in Konflikt stehen. Dies bedeutet, dass unser Auge das Geschehen auf mehrere Arten interpretieren kann. Obwohl das Bild auf Ihrer Netzhaut unverändert bleibt, sehen Sie nie eine Vermischung der beiden Wahrnehmungen, obwohl die beiden Interpretationen zwischen diesen hin- und hergerissen sind. So sind Illusionen sehr nützliche Werkzeuge für Wissenschafter. Sie können die verborgenen Einschränkungen des Sehsystems in einer Weise sichtbar machen, die das normale Sehvermögen nicht schafft. Viele Illusionen in diesem Buch werden Ihre Wahrnehmung wiederholt zum Narren halten, auch wenn Sie wissen, dass Sie hinters Licht geführt werden. Dies geschieht, weil es für Ihren Sehapparat wichtiger ist, seine Einschränkungen zu befolgen als sie zu verletzen, aus dem einfachen Grund, dass Sie auf etwas gestoßen sind, das ungewöhnlich, widersprüchlich oder paradox ist. Die Illusionen sind willkürlich in vier Galerien eingeteilt. Viele sind nicht allgemein bekannt, da sie ihren Ursprung in der Forschung haben. Es werden auch klassische Illusionen angeführt, wobei wir jedoch meist deren Effekt verstärkt bzw. gesteigert haben. Ich habe versucht, wissenschaftliche Erklärungen für die Illusionen zu liefern. Diese sind am Ende jeder Galerie angeführt. In vielen Fällen wissen wir jedoch heute noch keine Antwort. Dies trifft vor allem auf geometrische Illusionen wie etwa die Poggendorf-Illusion oder die Muller-Lyer-Illusion zu. Darum möchte ich betonen, dass die Erklärungen nicht auf allgemeine Gültigkeit plädieren, sondern durchaus skeptisch betrachtet werden sollen. Die Erforschung des Auges ist eines der aufregendsten Gebiete der Wissenschaft und das Studium von visuellen Illusionen bereitet große Freude. Ich hoffe, dass dieses Buch Jung und Alt überraschen und erfreuen wird und es auch zum Nachdenken über das wundersamste Mysterium dieses Universums anregt - dem menschlichen Gehirn.
Footnote
Original u.d.T.: The art of optical illusions (2000)
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft
RSWK
Optische Täuschung / Kunst / Geschichte / Bildband
BK
33.18 / Optik
77.40 / Wahrnehmungspsychologie
RVK
LH 61220

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  5. Singer, W.: Neurobiologische Anmerkungen zum Konstruktivismus-Diskurs (2002) 0.20
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