Document (#27877)

Author
Braschoß, K.
Hansmann, S.
Hesse, T.
Joosten-Wilke, U.
Ristau, R.
Rusch, B.
Taylor, V.
Title
Indexierung von Online-Katalogen : Ein gemeinsames Konzept der ALEPH-Anwender in Berlin
Source
Bibliotheksdienst. 38(2004) H.10, S.1264-1282
Year
2004
Abstract
1. Einleitung Der Online-Katalog einer Bibliothek (auch als OPAC oder Online Public Access Catalog bezeichnet) muss sich in unterschiedlichen Szenarien bewähren. Er muss präzise gestellte Suchanfragen, die mit exakten Suchstrings arbeiten, genauso bedienen wie weite Suchen mit angenäherten Termen. In beiden Fällen erwartet der Benutzer relevante Ergebnisse. Die Relevanz eines Rechercheergebnisses wird in klassischen Retrievalsystemen wie einem BibliotheksOPAC im Allgemeinen mit den Größen "Precision" und "Recall" gemessen. Dabei steht "Precision" für die Genauigkeit und "Recall" für die Vollständigkeit der erzielten Einträge. In diesem Balanceakt zwischen der gewünschten Precision und dem Recall spielt die gewählte Indexierungsmethode in der Bibliotheksdatenbank eine entscheidende Rolle. Unberührt davon bleiben fortgeschrittene Retrievaltechniken wie linguistische Verfahren. Mit der Indexierungsmethode wird, allgemein ausgedrückt, die Repräsentation der Dokumente - in diesem Fall der in der Bibliothek vorhandenen Medien - für die Suche festgelegt. Diese beginnt mit der Erfassung von Katalogdaten, aus denen die Indexeinträge gewonnen werden. Hier hat man es in der Regel mit hoch differenzierten Datensätzen zu tun, die besonders wertvoll sind, wenn sie im Bereich von Personennamen, Körperschaftsnamen und Schlagwörtern mit Normdatensätzen arbeiten. Normdatensätze gewährleisten einerseits ein kontrolliertes Vokabular und gleichzeitig Verweisungsformen, die ebenso für die Indexierung nutzbar gemacht werden können. Damit sind die Bedingungen für relevante Ergebnismengen im Sinne von "Precision" und "Recall" günstig. Entsprechend ungünstig wirken sich so genannte Kurztitel aus, die in großer Zahl im Zuge von Retrokonversionsprojekten entstanden sind. Diese rudimentären Titelaufnahmen liefern nur eine begrenzte Menge an Indexeinträgen und weisen in der Regel keine Verknüpfungen zu Normdaten auf.
Für die Indexierung muss zunächst die Art und der Umfang der im OPAC aufzubauenden Indices festgelegt werden. Aus Sicht des Nutzers entspricht diese Definition den möglichen Sucheinstiegen, auch Suchaspekte genannt. Hat man dann entschieden, welche Indexterme aus welchen Feldern in die jeweiligen Indices einfließen sollen, muss bestimmt werden, nach welchen Regeln die Terme behandelt werden. Hier steilt sich insbesondere das Problem der Sonderzeichen wie Bindestriche, Apostrophe und Punkte oder Ziffern in Zeichenketten. Die Frage, welche Inhalte in welcher Art in Bibliotheksdatenbanken zu indexieren seien, wurde überregional zuletzt 1999 von der Konferenz für Regelwerksfragen gestellt. Im Auftrag dieser Konferenz tagte eine Arbeits-gemeinschaft, die leider jedoch keinen formellen Abschlussbericht veröffentlichte.' Im Umfeld dieser Arbeitsgruppe sind jedoch Empfehlungen zur Indexierung von Bibliotheksdatenbanken entstanden, die sich auch für das vorliegende Papier als ausgesprochen hilfreich erwiesen haben. Zu nennen sind hier insbesondere das vom Bayerischen Bibliotheksverbund für die SISIS-Software vorgelegte Indexierungskonzept als auch der technische Lösungsansatz aus der TU Braunschweig. Die Art der Indexierung hat im Kooperativen Bibliotheksverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (KOBV), der auf eine zentrale Verbunddatenbank zugunsten einer dezentralen Struktur verzichtet, besondere Bedeutung. In dieser Verbundarchitektur werden sowohl Bibliotheksmitarbeiter als auch Bibliotheksbenutzer immer wieder mit der Recherche in fremden Katalogen konfrontiert, die von verschiedenen Einrichtungen betreut werden. Ein abgestimmtes Indexierungskonzept verfolgt hier zwei grundsätzliche Ziele. Einerseits soll durch eine vereinheitlichte Indexierung die Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit der Rechercheergebnisse in der parallelen Suche in mehreren Katalogen über die KOBV-Suchmaschine erhöht werden. Gleichzeitig soll durch eine vereinheitlichte Indexierung die Akzeptanz von Suchen über Z39.50 prinzipiell gesteigert und damit nicht zuletzt die Bedingungen für die gegenseitige Übernahme von Titeldaten erleichtert werden. Während das Protokoll Z39.50 einen Standard für die Formulierung einer Rechercheanfrage festlegt, gehen diese Vereinbarungen weit darüber hinaus, indem sie im Detail beschreiben, welche (Feld)-Inhalte in welcher Form in den definierten durchsuchbaren Indices abgelegt werden. Damit bildet das hier vorgelegte Konzept die Grundlage, auf der dann die jeweiligen Suchanfragen aufsetzen.
Theme
OPAC
Object
Aleph

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