Document (#27904)

Author
Manecke, H.-J.
Title
Klassifikation, Klassieren
Source
Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. 5., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. 2 Bde. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, Th. Seeger u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Bd.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2004
Pages
S.127-140
Abstract
Unter Klassifikation wird ganz allgemein eine Gruppierung oder Einteilung des gesamten Wissens, der Wissenschaft und ihrer Disziplinen nach einheitlichen methodischen Prinzipien verstanden. Die Elemente (Bestandteile) der Klassifikationen werden als Klassen bezeichnet. Bei der Verwendung des Begriffs "Klassifikation" ist zu unterscheiden zwischen - dem Prozess der Klassifikationserarbeitung (d.h. der Klassenbildung); - dem Klassifikationssystem als Ergebnis des Klassenbildungsprozesses; - dem Prozess des Klassierens bzw des Klassifizierens, d.h. dem gegenseitigen Zuordnen von Objekten und Klassen des Klassifikationssystems. Dieses Zuordnen erfolgt auf der Grundlage mindestens eines gemeinsamen klassifikatorischen Merkmals (Klassern), das den einzelnen Objekten einer bestimmten Klasse eigen ist und sie von Objekten anderer Klassen unterscheidet. Gleichartige Objekte bzw. Sachverhalte, d.h. diejenigen, die mindestens ein identisches Merkmal haben, werden in einer Klasse zusammengefasst. Eine derartige Objektklassifikation ist Grundlage beispielsweise der Faktendokumentation, bei der Daten über Objekte, Sachverhalte etc. direkt gespeichert und abgefragt werden können. Ein Klassifikationssystem ist insgesamt das Ergebnis eines schrittweisen Strukturierungsprozesses, bei dem jeder Klasse in dem System ein bestimmter Platz zugeteilt wird. So erfüllen die Klassifikationen vor allem eine Ordnungsfunktion (Gleiches zu Gleichem), die ganz offensichtlich einem Grundbedürfnis des Menschen entspricht. Bereits in den Ländern des alten Orients und in der antiken Welt gab es Klassifikationen. Hinter jeder Klasse verbirgt sich ein dreistufiger Abstraktionsprozess, d.h. zunächst die Abstraktion vom Objekt bzw. Sachverhalt einer Klasse zum Begriff, der die Merkmale bestimmt, die diese Klasse von einer anderen unterscheidet. Dieser Begriff ist dann in einer nächsten Abstraktionsstufe durch eine äquivalente Bezeichnung auszudrücken. In diesem Abschnitt stehen Klassifikationssysteme für die Referenzdokumentation, d.h. ihr Einsatz als Dokumentationssprache bei der Erarbeitung von Referenzbeschreibungen für Wissensquellen, im Vordergrund. Sie zählen zu den am weitesten verbreiteten Dokumentationssprachen und zeichnen sich durch die ihnen innewohnende Systematik aus. Ein derartiges Klassifikationssystem ist eine strukturierte Zusammenstellung von Begriffen (Begriffssystematik), in der die Beziehungen zwischen den Begriffen (meist Ober- und Unterordnung) durch systemabbildende und von natürlichen Sprachen unabhängige Bezeichnungen (Notationen) dargestellt sind. Eine Notation ist demnach eine nach bestimmten Regeln gebildete Zeichenfolge, die eine Klasse (Systemstelle) repräsentiert und deren Stellung im systematischen Zusammenhang abbildet. Diese Notationen werden bei der Inhaltserschließung als inhaltskennzeichnende Merkmale (Indexterms) vergeben und sind somit Grundlage für das Speichern und Wiederauffinden. Hauptfunktion von Klassifikationen dieser Art ist also das Ordnen der Sachverhalte und Aussagen (der Essenz), die bei der Analyse von Publikationen und anderer Wissensquellen als wesentlich erkannt und mit Hilfe von Notationen repräsentiert worden sind. Die Erläuterung der nachfolgenden Grundlagen bezieht sich vor allem auf die Verwendung von Klassifikationen als Begriffsystematik. Sie gelten aber auch in analoger Weise für die o.a. Objektklassifikation, beispielsweise für die International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Sie dient weltweit für die Verschlüsselung von Diagnosen. Ausführlichere Erläuterungen enthält ein kürzlich zum Selbststudium entwickeltes einführendes Lehrbuch zum Thema Wissensorganisation.

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  5. Effenberger, C.: ¬Ein semantisches Netz für die Suche mit der Dewey-Dezimalklassifikation : optimiertes Retrieval durch die Verwendung versionierter DDC-Klassen (2011) 0.16
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