Document (#27921)

Author
Womser-Hacker, C.
Title
Theorie des Information Retrieval III : Evaluierung
Source
Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. 5., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. 2 Bde. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, Th. Seeger u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Bd.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2004
Pages
S.227-235
Abstract
Information-Retrieval-Systeme wurden bereits sehr früh aus einer bewertenden Perspektive betrachtet. Jede neu entwickelte Komponente sollte effektivitätssteigernd für das gesamte System wirken und musste ihre Funktionalität unter Beweis stellen oder den Vergleich zu existierenden Verfahren antreten (z.B. automatische Indexierung vs. manuelle Erschließung von Informationsobjekten). 1963 fanden die Cranfield-II-Experimente statt und begründeten die Evaluierungsprinzipien im Information Retrieval. Somit haben auch Bewertungsverfahren, -ansätze und -methoden bereits eine lange Tradition. Die von Sparck Jones eingebrachte Feststellung, dass die genauen Gründe für das Verhalten von Information-Retrieval-Systemen oft im Dunklen lägen, führte zu der Forderung nach einer exakten und expliziten Evaluierungsmethodologie und experimentellen Überprüfbarkeit. Als generelle Herangehensweise hat sich ein indirektes Verfahren zur Bewertung von InformationRetrieval-Systemen etabliert, bei welchem das System an sich als black box gesehen und nur der Retrievaloutput als Grundlage für die Bewertung herangezogen wird. In den Experimenten stand die Systemperspektive im Vordergrund, um zu einer bewertenden Aussage zu gelangen. Es wurde gemessen, wie gut die Systeme in der Lage sind, die an sie gestellten Anforderungen zu erfüllen, relevante Dokumente zu liefern und nicht-relevante zurückzuhalten. Durch die zunehmende Komplexität der Systeme sowie die immer stärkere Einbeziehung von Benutzern, die nicht über die Kompetenz und Professionalität von Informationsfachleuten verfügen, wurde es immer schwieriger, Einzeleigenschaften vom Gesamtsystem zu isolieren und experimentell zu bewerten. Erst im Zeitalter der Suchmaschinen ist man zu der Ansicht gelangt, dass den Benutzern der Systeme eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Bewertung zukommt. Die Verfahren der Qualitätsbewertung müssen - wie dieses Beispiel zeigt - ständig weiterentwickelt werden. Die Benutzermerkmale können heterogen sein und sich einer genauen Kenntnis entziehen, was eine vollständige Formalisierung bzw. Quantifizierung erschwert. Neueren Datums sind Studien, die sich auf interaktive Information-Retrieval-Systeme oder auf die Qualitätsbestimmung bestimmter Teilkomponenten spezialisiert haben wie z.B. die Erschließungsoder Visualisierungskomponente, die Gestaltung der Benutzungsschnittstelle aus softwareergonomischer Sicht oder auch die Multilingua-Fähigkeit.
Theme
Retrievalstudien
Object
TREC

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  4. Content Management Handbuch : Strategien, Theorien und Systeme für erfolgreiches Content Management (2003) 0.22
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  5. Wiegerling, K.: Philosophische Grundprobleme der Informationsbewertung (1996) 0.21
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