Document (#28052)

Author
Capurro, R.
Title
Gedehnter Blick und beharrliche Langsamkeit : Gegen das Mythologem der beschleunigten Wissensgesellschaft
Source
Information - Wissenschaft und Praxis. 55(2004) H.8, S.463-468
Year
2004
Abstract
Die beschleunigte Wissensgesellschaft ist jene Gesellschaft, in der sich jede/r ständig vergewissern muss und will, wo er/sie sich gerade befindet. "Ich bin hier - wo bist Du?" Diese typische Frage eines Handy-Nutzers zeigt zunächst eine scheinbar banale Veränderung gegenüber dem herkömmlichen Telefon. In Wahrheit bedeutet es aber dass wir ständig und überall ansprechbar sind. Man ist nicht mehr bereit für eine alltägliche oder geschäftliche Antwort lange zu warten. Die Konsequenz dieser Beschleunigung lautet meistens Hektik und Stress. Diese Veränderung der Kommunikationsverhältnisse - und Kommunikation ist der Kitt menschlichen Zusammenseins - vollzieht sich auf der Grundlage der digitalen Weltvernetzung bekannt als das Internet. Das Handy ist nicht nur die bloße Summe herkömmlicher Geräte, nämlich Telefon, Kamera Fax und dergleichen, sondern diese Summe auf Internet-Basis. Das verändert grundlegend nicht nur unsere Arbeits- sondern auch unsere sonstigen Lebensverhältnisse in nicht geringerem Maße als es bei den Transport- und Kommunikationsmitteln im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert der Fall gewesen ist. Der springende Punkt ist dabei zweifellos die Interaktivität und zwar im Unterschied zu jenen Formen der Verbreitung digitaler Botschaften, die das Monopol der Massenmedien des 20. Jahrhunderts bildeten. Das Neue besteht nämlich in der Möglichkeit eines jeden im digitalen Netz Eingeloggten messages nicht nur an Einzelne, sondern auch an viele zu senden oder sie von ihnen zu empfangen und mit solchen messages direkt oder indirekt eine Wirkung zu erzielen. Diese interaktive und wirkungsmächtige Struktur der digitalen Vernetzung stellt jene hierarchische Monopolstruktur der Massenmedien in Frage, die aus dem Empfänger der Sendung nur einen Rezipienten machen, während jetzt im Prinzip jeder Empfänger zugleich ein potenzieller Sender und ein digital Handelnder wird' jenseits der individualistischen Version des klassischen Telefons. Wenn wir davon ausgehen, dass menschliches Wissen das Produkt sozialer Interaktion und die Grundlage unseres politischen, kulturellen und ökonomischen Lebens ist' dann leuchtet ein, dass eine solche Veränderung der Kommunikationstechnik zugleich eine Beschleunigung in der Wissensproduktion, -verbreitung und -nutzung mit sich bringt, die sich hinter dem verbrauchten Schlagwort von der Wissensgesellschaft oder auch von der Informationsgesellschaft verbirgt. Diese Beschleunigung führt zu einem neuen Selbstverhältnis im Sinne nämlich eines vernetzten Subjekts, das die Spannung zwischen Autonomie und Heteronomie im digitalen Netz anders begreifen und gestalten lernen muss als bisher. Wir sind digital vernetzt. Das ist der Grundsatz der vernetzten Wissensgesellschaft. Was wir über die Welt wissen, wissen wir nicht mehr bloß durch die Massenmedien, wie noch Niklas Luhmann behauptete, sondern durch vielfältige interaktive digitale Kanäle' die inzwischen weitgehend die Basis unseres In-der-Welt-seins bilden. Wer aber sind 'wir'? Die digitalen Kanäle verbinden und spalten uns zugleich, sofern sie nämlich aus unterschiedlichen Gründen, für einen großen Teil der Weltbevölkerung de facto unzugänglich bleiben. Wir sind vernetzt gespalten. Wir pflegen diesen Zustand mit dem Ausdruck, digitale Spaltung, (digital divide) zu kennzeichnen, wohl wissend' dass damit bisherige ökonomische, politische, technische und kulturelle Spaltungen berührt sind. Die ethisch-politische Debatte um die künftige Wissensgesellschaft beschäftigt zur Zeit den von den Vereinten Nationen einberufenen Weltgipfel über die Informationsgesellschaft (World Summit an the Information Society), worauf ich noch zu sprechen komme.
Die folgenden Überlegungen sind zugleich bejahend und kritisch gegenüber der heutigen beschleunigten Wissensgesellschaft. Sie sind bejahend, indem sie versuchen, diese Veränderung im Sinne eines epochalen kulturellen Einschnittes zu würdigen. Sie sind kritisch, indem sie zeigen, dass der Mensch sich durch sein Wissen und, wie Aristoteles mit Recht betont, durch sein Handeln (praxis) auszeichnet, so dass in der Wissensgesellschaft alles auf diese Verbindung zwischen der Bildung des Verstands und der des Charakters ankommt. Wissensprozesse beruhen auf Informationsprozessen: Wie soll man etwas erfahren, wenn dies nicht mitgeteilt wird? Indes, Information und Bildung scheinen in unserem überkommenen Verständnis in einem beinah unversöhnlichen Gegensatz zu stehen. Der Wissensbegriff, als Kern der Bildung, scheint etwas Höheres anzusprechen als die bloße Information. Die Begriffsgeschichte belehrt uns aber bei näherer Betrachtung, eines Besseren. Das deutsche Wort 'Bildung' ist die im 18. Jahrhundert entstandene Übersetzung der aus dem Französischen übernommenen Begriffe 'Edukation' und 'Information', wie zum Beispiel der Ausdruck "Information des Verstandes und des Herzens" bei Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813) bezeugt, der maßgeblich an dieser Übersetzung beteiligt war. Der Informationsbegriff selbst geht zurück auf das Lateinische informatio im Sinne von materieller und geistiger Formung, und verweist wiederum auf die bedeutungsschweren besonders von Platon und Aristoteles geprägten Begriffe idealeidos, morphe und typos.
Theme
Information

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  3. Helmerich, M.: Liniendiagramme in der Wissenskommunikation : eine mathematisch-didaktische Untersuchung (2011) 0.32
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  4. Döring, N.: Computervermittelte Kommunikation, Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (2004) 0.32
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  5. Roos, M.; Hummert, G.; Kustos, A.: Wissensmanagement in Bibliotheken: "learning library" : Testbetrieb der Lernumgebung APOSDLE in der Abteilung Information der UB Hagen (2011) 0.32
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