Document (#29371)

Author
Dewald, U.
Title
Aus den Augen, aber nicht aus dem Sinn : Auch ohne funktionierendes Sehzentrum kann das Gehirn visuelle Informationen aufnehmen
Source
http://www.wissenschaft.de/wissen/news/drucken/258839.html
Year
2005
Series
Wissenschaft.de - Hirnforschung; 02.11.2005
Abstract
Das Gehirn kann auch dann visuelle Informationen aufnehmen, wenn das eigentliche Sehzentrum nicht funktioniert. Das haben Wissenschaftler um Tony Ro von der RiceUniversität in Houston in Tests mit Freiwilligen gezeigt. Die Forscher blockierten dabei den so genannten visuellen Kortex der Probanden für wenige Augenblicke, während sich ihnen auf einem Bildschirm Linien oder farbige Punkte zeigten. Obwohl die Probanden angaben, nichts gesehen zu haben, errieten sie anschließend die gezeigten Symbole in mehr als drei von vier Fällen.
Content
"Immer wieder wird von Patienten mit schweren Schäden des Sehzentrums im Gehirn berichtet, in der Lage sind, die Form oder die Position von Gegenständen ungefähr zu erfassen, obwohl sie bewusst gar nichts mehr sehen können. Diesen Effekt konnten die Forscher nun in ihren Tests mit elf Probanden bestätigen. Die Wissenschaftler legten dazu den visuellen Kortex für wenige hundertstel Sekunden mit der so genannten transkraniellen Magnetstimulation (TMS) lahm. Dabei induziert ein starkes magnetisches Feld elektrische Ströme in den Nervenbahnen, so dass die Hirnregion kurzzeitig ihre Funktion nicht mehr erfüllen kann. Gleichzeitig zeigten die Wissenschaftler den Probanden auf einem Monitor wenige tausendstel Sekunden lang entweder grüne oder rote Punkte oder eine horizontale oder vertikale Linie. Alle Probanden gaben anschließend an, nichts gesehen zu haben. Da ihr Sehzentrum blockiert war, konnten sie die Punkte oder Linien zwar mit den Augen aufnehmen, jedoch nicht bewusst wahrnehmen. Als die Forscher sie jedoch aufforderten, die Farbe der Punkte oder die Ausrichtung der Linien zu erraten, lagen die Probanden dennoch meistens richtig: In 75 Prozent der Fälle errieten sie die Lage der Linien, und bei der Farbe der Punkte lag die Trefferquote sogar bei mehr als 80 Prozent. Auch wenn der visuelle Kortex blockiert war, wurden die Informationen dennoch auf unbewusste Weise vom Gehirn erfasst, erläutert Tony Ro die Ergebnisse. Auf weichen Wegen diese auch ohne die Mitarbeit des Sehzentrums in höhere Hirnregionen gelangen, können die Forscher jedoch noch nicht erklären. Die Beobachtungen werfen ein neues Licht auf die Frage, wo und auf welche Weise im Gehirn Bewusstsein entsteht und weiche Bedeutung der immer wieder kontrovers diskutierten unbewussten Wahrnehmung zukommt."
Theme
Information
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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