Document (#30034)

Author
Batley, S.
Title
Information architecture for information professionals
Imprint
Oxford : Chandos
Year
2007
Pages
xix, 212 S
Isbn
1-84334-232-8 (pb)
1-84334-233-5 (hb)
Series
Information professional series
Abstract
This book covers the key aspects of information architecture: core elements of information management - indexing, cataloguing and classification - organising and recording information in the digital environment. The book also focuses on design - specifically user-centred design: designing information systems that support the needs of users, by providing attractive, intuitive interfaces that support a range of information tasks and accommodate a range of individual resources. Key Features: (1) Is aimed at information professionals - existing texts in this emerging area are primarily aimed at web managers. (2) Is a straightforward introduction to the area. The Author: Dr Batley is a senior lecturer at the London Metropolitan University with teaching and research in the areas of organisation and retrieval of information and knowledge resources. Having completed a PhD on factors affecting the retrieval of information from picture databases in 1989, she worked as a subject librarian at the University of East London, before taking up her current post in 1996. Dr Batley is the author of another Chandos book, 'Classification in Theory and Practice'. Readership: The book is aimed at library and information practitioners; students of librarianship, information studies and information management. Contents: Introduction to information architecture Managing content Document description and content analysis Needs, task and resource analysis Indexing and ontologies Metadata Classification and taxonomy creation User-centred design and evaluation
Footnote
Rez. in: Mitt. VÖB 60(2007) H.2, S.70-74 (O. Oberhauser): "In unseren Breiten ist der Begriff "information architecture" (IA) noch nicht sehr geläufig. Zwar existiert bereits das Äquivalent "Informationsarchitektur - so weist nicht nur die deutschsprachige Wikipedia einen entsprechenden Eintrag auf, sondern man findet auch im Dreiländerkatalog mittels Titelwortsuche "ungefähr 12" Treffer dazu -, doch wer aus unseren Kreisen vermag den Begriffsumfang anzugeben, den Terminus zu erläutern bzw. abzugrenzen? Haben wir es mit einem Modebegriff zu tun? Mit einem Quasi-Synonym zu bestehenden Begriffen wie Informations- oder Wissensorganisation? Wurden gar Klassifikation bzw. Thesaurus - eben erst zu "Taxonomien" umgemodelt - schon wieder einmal neu erfunden oder entdeckt? Geht man dem Terminus "information architecture" nach, so erfährt man, vielleicht mit einem gewissen Erstaunen, zum Beispiel folgendes: - der Begriff wurde bereits 1975 von dem Architekten und Graphikdesigner Richard Wurman geprägt, der sich damit auf eine bessere und benutzerfreundlichere, von architektonischen Prinzipien inspirierte Gestaltung von Informationen bezog; - der Terminus setzte sich allerdings erst mit der Publikation des Buches der aus dem bibliothekarischen Kontext stammenden Autoren Rosenfeld und Morville (1998, soeben in dritter Auflage erschienen) sowie einer ASIS&T-Tagung zur Definition von IA (2000) in breiteren Kreisen durch; - spätestens mit der Publikation von "Information architects" hat Wurman auch diesen, eine Tätigkeit bzw. einen Beruf beschreibenden Terminus etabliert; - seit 2002 besteht das "Information Architecture Institute" (IIA), eine Non-Profit-Organisation zur Entwicklung und Förderung von IA, mit bereits über 1000 Mitgliedern in 60 Staaten und einer Website in acht Sprachen; - (amerikanische) Universitäten haben bereits mit der Etablierung von IA-Studiengängen bzw. Vertiefungsrichtungen (etwa im Fach Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft) begonnen.
Dem Begriff IA kann also nicht mehr ausgewichen werden. Was ist nun wirklich damit gemeint? Das IIA gibt folgende Definition: "1. Das strukturelle Design von gemeinschaftlich genutzten Informationsumgebungen. 2. Die Kunst und Wissenschaft Websites, Intranets, Online-Communitys [sic!] und Software zu strukturieren und Bezeichnungssysteme zu entwickeln, um Usability und die Auffindbarkeit von Inhalten herzustellen. 3. Eine sich herauskristallisierende Community von Praktikern, die Designund Architekturprinzipien in die digitale Landschaft einführen will." Bei Rosenfeld & Morville (Auflage 1998) heisst es - nicht unähnlich, aber doch nicht deckungsgleich -, IA sei: 1. The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. 2. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. 3. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. 4. An emerging discipline and community of practice focusing on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. IA hat aber wohl nicht nur mit dem Design von Websites zu tun. Sue Batley, deren Buch sich im Gegensatz zu jenem der beiden amerikanischen Autoren nicht an Webdesigner, sondern an Informationsspezialisten wendet, betont im ersten Kapitel, dass es gegenwärtig (noch) keine allgemeingültige Definition für IA gebe; zuviel sei noch in Entwicklung bzw. im Fluss. Sie sieht, mit Blick auf die Zielgruppe der Informationsspezialisten, IA als eine Verbindung der Kernelemente des Informationsmanagements mit den Prinzipien des benutzerzentrierten Designs. Die Verbesserung von Auffindbarkeit ("increasing findability") gilt ihr hier als die wesentliche Aktivität. Als zentrale Begriffe in diesem Zusammenhang stellt Batley daher auch "indexes and indexing", "classification", "cataloguing" sowie "user-centered design" (von Informationssystemen) vor.
Im zweiten Kapitel, das ich für besonders lesenswert halte, beschäftigt sich die Autorin mit vier als "preliminaries" bezeichneten Stadien im Prozess des Designs von Informationssystemen: "information needs analysis" (welche Informationen werden benötigt), "task analysis" (für welche Aufgaben werden die Informationen benötigt), "resource analysis" (welche persönliche Kompetenzen bzw. praktischen Fähigkeiten stehen den präsumtiven Benutzern bereits zur Verfügung), "user modelling" (Segmentierung bzw. Kategorisierung der Anwender). In diesem Zusammenhang werden auch Begriffe wie "information audit" oder "needs assessment" erläutert sowie methodische Frage angerissen; zudem wird eine kleine Fallstudie als Beispiel präsentiert. Das folgende Kapitel ("Searching and finding") konzentriert sich auf die Informationssuche bzw. auf Retrievalaspekte. Dabei werden die Strategien des Suchens und Browsings im allgemeinen wie auch im besonderen (z.B. Boolesche Suchformulierungen, bibliothekarische Klassifikationen und Webtaxonomien) vorgestellt. Daran schliesst sich ein Kapitel über Dokumente und Dokumentbeschreibungen, in dem auf formale wie auch auf inhaltliche Aspekte der Dokumente (Metadaten vs. Thesauri) eingegangen wird. Kapitel 5 hat dann wieder einen höheren Neuigkeitswert für den bibliothekarischen Leser, da es hier um "interface and display design" geht. Begriffe wie Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle und mentale Modelle der Interaktion mit Computern (Metaphern) werden hier ebenso vorgestellt wie Interaktionsstile (z.B. Kommandosprachen vs. Formulare, Web-Kataloge) und grundsätzliche Designprinzipien (Bildschirmlayout, Navigation, Graphik etc.) Das darauf folgende kurze Kapitel "Management and maintenance" thematisiert Aspekte wie Content Management sowie organisatorische Fragen. In "Evaluation", dem abschliessenden Kapitel, geht es schliesslich um die Abschätzung von Wert und Qualität der durchgeführten "Informationsarchitektur", also um Wirksamkeit und Leistungsfähigkeit eines Systems (gemessen z.B. mittels bekannter Parameter wie Precision und Recall), aber auch um die damit erzielte Benutzerzufriedenheit.
Wie aus dieser kurzen Beschreibung ersichtlich wird, wartet das Buch mit zahlreichen interessanten Themen auf - oder reisst diese eben nur kurz an. Vielfach hätte man sich auch von einer Einführung mehr Detailreichtum erwartet, wobei natürlich nicht bekannt ist, welche Vorgaben die Autorin im Hinblick auf den Umfang des Buches zu beachten hatte. Meinem persönlichen Geschmack nach hätte der Band jedenfalls ruhig doppelt so dick sein dürfen, um mehr als nur einen kurzen Einstieg bieten zu können. Immerhin, so sei konzediert, enthält aber jedes Kapitel eine gute Auswahl an Hinweisen auf weiterführende Literatur. Wie auch schon ihrem vor zwei Jahren erschienenen Klassifikationsbuch9 ist Batley insgesamt eine aufgelockerte und gut lesbare Darstellung gelungen. Die eingangs gestellte Frage - Modebegriff? Quasi-Synonym? - beantwortet das Buch indes nicht wirklich. Die Verbindung der Kernelemente des Informationsmanagements mit den Prinzipien des benutzerzentrierten Designs erscheint mir eigentlich als nichts wesentlich Neues - hätte Informationsdesign nicht schon immer so sein sollen? Gerade nach der Lektüre des vorliegenden Buches werde ich den Verdacht nicht los, dass der Neologismus "Informationsarchitektur" mehr schick als inhaltsschwer ist. Man mag darin vielleicht den Versuch sehen, Vorhandenes aus einer anderen Perspektive zu betrachten oder auch das Bestreben, Inhalte und Themen aus dem Kernbereich der Bibliotheks- und Informationspraxis für Interessenten ohne einschlägige Vorbildung schmackhaft und/oder verständlich aufzubereiten. Die Ambition, dies zu einer Tätigkeits- oder Berufsbezeichnung ("information architect") hochzustilisieren, kommt mir wenigstens so fragwürdig vor wie das seinerzeitige, unselige und immer noch nicht vollständig überwundene Auseinanderdividieren von Bibliothekaren und Dokumentaren."
LCSH
Information organization

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