Document (#30126)

Author
Schäfer, L.
Title
Über die sinnliche Wahrnehmung und das Auge des Geistes
Source
Visionen. Hrsg.: Universität Kaiserslautern, H. Hofrichter
Imprint
Kaiserslautern : Universität
Year
2002
Pages
S.11-24
Abstract
Über das Erkenntnisvermögen der Wahrnehmung ist in der Philosophie nachgedacht worden, seit es sie gibt; deshalb kann ich im Folgenden nur einige skizzenhafte und selektive Ausführungen zum Thema bieten, die teils historische, teils systematische, teils allgemeine erkenntnistheoretische, teils wissenschaftstheoretische Aspekte betreffen, Vermöge unserer Sinne beziehen wir uns auf die Welt um uns, und die Wahrnehmung gilt als Muster einer direkten Erkenntnis äußerer Gegenstände; alle Sachhaltigkeit in unserer Erkenntnis führen wir auf Leistungen der sinnlichen Wahrnehmung zurück. Vom Augenzeugen lassen wir uns beglaubigen, was und genau wie es denn wirklich passiert ist, und billigen ihm eine hohe epistemische Zuverlässigkeit zu, die höchstens übertroffen wird, wenn wir selbst mit eigenen Augen die ganze Sache gesehen haben. Das sind erkenntnistheoretische Selbstverständlichkeiten, die uns allen geläufig sind, und dafür müssten wir keinen Erkenntnistheoretiker oder Wissenschaftstheoretiker bemühen. Die Selbstverständlichkeit, mit der wir heute Erfahrung und Wissenschaft verbinden, und dabei meinen, dass sinnliche Wahrnehmungen die Grundlage unseres Wissens bildeten und wir ohne diese Grundlage nur realitätsleere Gedankengebäude zustande bringen könnten, ist vergleichsweise neuen Datums; Sie ist erst im 17, Jahrhundert aufgekommen. Dass die Idee der Erfahrungswissenschaft tatsächlich erst so spät entstanden ist, nachdem es eine über 2000 Jahre alte Tradition der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis gab, ist verwunderlich. Denn es konnte doch nicht verborgen bleiben, wieviel wir für unser Wissen der Welt der Erfahrung verdanken. Kants berühmter Satz, mit dem er die Kritik der reinen Vernunft beginnt, lautet: "Daß all' unsere Erkenntnis mit der Erfahrung anfange, daran ist gar kein Zweifel" (B1). Wer wollte diese unersetzbare Rolle der Erfahrung, und das heißt hier der sinnlichen Wahrnehmung, die uns überhaupt erst über die Dinge der Wirklichkeit in Kenntnis setzt, je bestreiten!? Das wollten und konnten auch die Autoren der Antike nicht, zumal sie Medizin und Astronomie, zwei der ältesten Wissenschaften überhaupt, deren Erfahrungsgrundlage unbestreitbar war, schon weit entwickelt hatten.
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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