Document (#30129)

Author
Malsburg, C. von der
Title
Gehirn und Computer
Source
Visionen. Hrsg.: Universität Kaiserslautern, H. Hofrichter
Imprint
Kaiserslautern : Universität
Year
2002
Pages
S.27-37
Abstract
Der Computer ist ein Gerät, das Algorithmen ausführt, d.h. Folgen einfacher Befehle, Das Charakteristische an einem Algorithmus ist, dass all' seine qualitativen Eigenschaften im Voraus geplant und ausprobiert sind, so dass während seiner Ausführung keine Ideen benötigt werden, keine qualitativen Fragen offen sind und keine Überraschungen vorkommen. Nur quantitative Entscheidungen müssen getroffen werden (z.B. "Nimm die nächste Ziffer und addiere sie zum Ergebnis!"). Genau diese Eigenschaft hat Alan Turing dazu geführt, Algorithmen als Maschinen zu formulieren. Es gibt eine sehr klare Trennung zwischen dem qualitativen und quantitativen Aspekt eines Algorithmus: Ersterer wird vom menschlichen Geist erfunden und als Regel formuliert, letzterer hat mit den Daten zu tun, die von den Regel bearbeitet werden. Die Regeln wirken niemals auf ihre eigene Struktur zurück. Wenn man sich bei der Betrachtung auf die äußerlich sichtbare Struktur von Algorithmen beschränkt, lässt man wichtige verborgene Aspekte außer Acht: Die Semantik, die den Symbolen Substanz, Bedeutung und Interpretation verleiht und auf Grund derer entschieden werden kann, ob die Regeln und Operationen überhaupt sinnvoll sind; Theologie, d.h. Motivation, Ziele, Werte, Ästhetik und Anwendbarkeitsbetrachtungen; und Heuristik, d.h. Methoden zur Erfindung neuer Strukturen. All' diese verborgenen Aspekte sind von der expliziten Betrachtung ausgeschlossen und sind doch wesentliche Bestandteile der Strukturen, für die explizite Algorithmen nur die sichtbare Oberfläche darstellen, Wenn man sich mit Algorithmen beschäftigt, hat man die Wahl, entweder nur die expliziten Strukturen zu betrachten - ein Blickpunkt, der im Kontext der Mathematik angemessen ist - oder auch die verborgenen Aspekte zu berücksichtigen und die Situation umfassend zu behandeln. Wenn man sich mit dem Gehirn und seiner Funktion befasst, ist letzteres Vorgehen zwingend. Verschiedene Probleme erwachsen der gegenwärtig vorherrschenden Auffassung, das Gehirn könne als algorithmisch gesteuerte Maschine verstanden werden. Erstens wäre ein "Hirnalgorithmus", d.h. eine vollständige und detaillierte Beschreibung der Funktionsweise des Gehirns, prinzipiell zu kompliziert, um für Menschen handhabbar oder zur Mitteilung von Wissen über unseren Geist geeignet zu sein. Zweitens lässt die algorithmische Auffassung die Frage offen, woher der Algorithmus eigentlich komme. Die naheliegende Antwort, dass er von der Evolution entwickelt wurde, verbietet sich, weil der Algorithmus viel zu kompliziert wäre, um über die Gene von Generation zu Generation weitergegeben zu werden, und weil die Evolution keinesfalls Prozeduren entwickelt haben kann, die für so neuartige Ideen wie Mathematik oder Chemie geeignet wären. Ein drittes Problem ist, dass sich das Gehirn offensichtlich selbst modifiziert, wenn es neue Ideen entwickelt, Dies widerspricht deutlich dem algorithmischen Denkansatz, der fordert, dass alle qualitativen Aspekte vorausgeplant sein müssen. Ein viertes Problem ist die Tatsache, dass der algorithmische Ansatz eine klare Abtrennung der Heuristik und der Teleologie vom expliziten Algorithmus fordert. Zusammengefasst wäre es lächerlich, die Arbeitsweise unseres Gehirns mit der Ausführung eines Algorithmus zu identifizieren.
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft
Informatik

Similar documents (content)

  1. Schönherr, M.: Bestechend brillant : die Schönheit der Algorithmen (2016) 0.17
    0.17428917 = sum of:
      0.17428917 = product of:
        1.0893073 = sum of:
          0.08987749 = weight(abstract_txt:keine in 4763) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08987749 = score(doc=4763,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1209946 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1777518 = boost
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.74282235 = fieldWeight in 4763, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4763)
          0.04376831 = weight(abstract_txt:sind in 4763) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04376831 = score(doc=4763,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.088794924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3025345 = boost
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.49291456 = fieldWeight in 4763, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4763)
          0.5039212 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmen in 4763) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.5039212 = score(doc=4763,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.31391805 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.449082 = boost
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              1.6052636 = fieldWeight in 4763, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4763)
          0.45174026 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmus in 4763) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.45174026 = score(doc=4763,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44730237 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2024796 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              1.0099214 = fieldWeight in 4763, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4763)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  2. Fry, H.: Hello World : was Algorithmen können und wie sie unser Leben verändern (2019) 0.17
    0.1659279 = sum of:
      0.1659279 = product of:
        0.69136626 = sum of:
          0.044938747 = weight(abstract_txt:keine in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.044938747 = score(doc=1203,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1209946 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1777518 = boost
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.37141117 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
          0.016510315 = weight(abstract_txt:sich in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.016510315 = score(doc=1203,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07358769 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1857626 = boost
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.22436246 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
          0.037904467 = weight(abstract_txt:sind in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.037904467 = score(doc=1203,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.088794924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3025345 = boost
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.42687652 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
          0.040862802 = weight(abstract_txt:dass in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040862802 = score(doc=1203,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1430806 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8112407 = boost
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.28559288 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
          0.32527977 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmen in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.32527977 = score(doc=1203,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.31391805 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.449082 = boost
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              1.0361933 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
          0.22587013 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmus in 1203) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22587013 = score(doc=1203,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44730237 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2024796 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.5049607 = fieldWeight in 1203, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1203)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  3. Singer, W.: Neurobiologische Anmerkungen zum Konstruktivismus-Diskurs (2002) 0.15
    0.14759898 = sum of:
      0.14759898 = product of:
        0.40999714 = sum of:
          0.028086716 = weight(abstract_txt:keine in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028086716 = score(doc=130,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1209946 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1777518 = boost
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.23213199 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.942579 = idf(docFreq=304, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.023073869 = weight(abstract_txt:sich in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023073869 = score(doc=130,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.07358769 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1857626 = boost
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.31355608 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.038686085 = weight(abstract_txt:sind in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.038686085 = score(doc=130,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.088794924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3025345 = boost
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.43567902 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.041300617 = weight(abstract_txt:wäre in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041300617 = score(doc=130,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15645988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3392828 = boost
                6.7576156 = idf(docFreq=134, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.26396936 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.7576156 = idf(docFreq=134, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.0546341 = weight(abstract_txt:wenn in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0546341 = score(doc=130,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.12135679 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3619846 = boost
                5.1541214 = idf(docFreq=670, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.450194 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                5.1541214 = idf(docFreq=670, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.035161182 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035161182 = score(doc=130,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.085127555 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3970786 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.41304114 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.041911595 = weight(abstract_txt:aspekte in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041911595 = score(doc=130,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17390059 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6303868 = boost
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.24100894 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.08458485 = weight(abstract_txt:gehirn in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08458485 = score(doc=130,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.19256006 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7156285 = boost
                6.4924064 = idf(docFreq=175, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.43926474 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.4924064 = idf(docFreq=175, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
          0.06255814 = weight(abstract_txt:dass in 130) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06255814 = score(doc=130,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.1430806 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8112407 = boost
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.43722305 = fieldWeight in 130, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=130)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Malsburg, C. von der: Künstliche Intelligenz (2013) 0.15
    0.1457027 = sum of:
      0.1457027 = product of:
        0.60709465 = sum of:
          0.035386622 = weight(abstract_txt:sich in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035386622 = score(doc=967,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.07358769 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1857626 = boost
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.4808769 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
          0.059247147 = weight(abstract_txt:wenn in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.059247147 = score(doc=967,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.12135679 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3619846 = boost
                5.1541214 = idf(docFreq=670, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.48820627 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.1541214 = idf(docFreq=670, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
          0.023205198 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023205198 = score(doc=967,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.085127555 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3970786 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.27259326 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
          0.09668854 = weight(abstract_txt:gehirn in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09668854 = score(doc=967,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.19256006 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7156285 = boost
                6.4924064 = idf(docFreq=175, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.50212145 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.4924064 = idf(docFreq=175, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
          0.1130671 = weight(abstract_txt:dass in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1130671 = score(doc=967,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.1430806 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8112407 = boost
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.79023355 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                4.569486 = idf(docFreq=1203, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
          0.2795 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmus in 967) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2795 = score(doc=967,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.44730237 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2024796 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.624857 = fieldWeight in 967, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=967)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  5. Ackermann, J.: Knuth-Morris-Pratt (2005) 0.14
    0.14259337 = sum of:
      0.14259337 = product of:
        0.7129668 = sum of:
          0.020430474 = weight(abstract_txt:sich in 1991) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.020430474 = score(doc=1991,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07358769 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1857626 = boost
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.27763438 = fieldWeight in 1991, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.5897994 = idf(docFreq=3206, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1991)
          0.019148635 = weight(abstract_txt:sind in 1991) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019148635 = score(doc=1991,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.088794924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3025345 = boost
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.21565011 = fieldWeight in 1991, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9433165 = idf(docFreq=2251, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1991)
          0.023205198 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 1991) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023205198 = score(doc=1991,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.085127555 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3970786 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.27259326 = fieldWeight in 1991, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1991)
          0.12728584 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmen in 1991) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12728584 = score(doc=1991,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.31391805 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.449082 = boost
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              0.40547475 = fieldWeight in 1991, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.4143953 = idf(docFreq=69, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1991)
          0.52289665 = weight(abstract_txt:algorithmus in 1991) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.52289665 = score(doc=1991,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.44730237 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2024796 = boost
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017287701 = queryNorm
              1.1690004 = fieldWeight in 1991, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                8.079371 = idf(docFreq=35, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1991)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)