Document (#30131)

Author
Singer, W.
Title
Neurobiologische Anmerkungen zum Konstruktivismus-Diskurs
Source
Visionen. Hrsg.: Universität Kaiserslautern, H. Hofrichter
Imprint
Kaiserslautern : Universität
Year
2002
Pages
S.41-60
Abstract
Es soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, wie Wissen über die Welt in das Gehirn gelangt, wie es dort verankert wird und wie es bei der Wahrnehmung der Welt genutzt wird, um diese zu ordnen. Behandelt werden müssen dabei kognitive Aspekte der Evolution und der Individualentwicklung. Vor allem aber bedarf es dabei der Auseinandersetzung mit den neurobiologischen Grundlagen der Wahrnehmung, mit der Frage nach der Repräsentation von Wahrnehmungsobjekten im Gehirn. Vorab soll an einem alltäglichen Wahrnehmungsprozess verdeutlicht werden, welche Leistungen unsere kognitiven Systeme erbringen müssen, wenn sie versuchen, Ordnung in die Welt zu bringen. Die erste Abbildung zeigt eine komplexe Szene, in der Figuren zu erkennen sind. Es dauert gemeinhin eine Weile, bis diese als Pferde identifiziert werden können, und je länger die Suche währt, um so mehr Pferde werden sichtbar. Um diese Figuren erkennen zu können, muss das visuelle System zunächst eine Segmentierungsleistung erbringen. Es muss die Figuren vom Grund trennen; die Mustermerkmale, die konstitutiv für individuelle Figuren sind, müssen als zusammengehörig erkannt werden. Ferner müssen die verschiedenen Figuren voneinander getrennt werden, um identifizierbar zu sein. Vermengung von Konturen der Pferde mit Konturen des Hintergrundes oder von Konturen unterschiedlicher Pferde würde das Erkennen individueller Gestalten unmöglich machen, Dieser Segmentierungsprozess läuft meist automatisch ab, bleibt unbewusst und erfordert keine besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Da er der Objektidentifikation vorausgeht, muss er auf einer relativ niedrigen Ebene der visuellen Verarbeitungshierarchie erfolgen. Aus dem gleichen Grund muss er sich an Gruppierungsregeln orientieren, die für alle visuellen Objekte gleichermaßen gelten. Gruppierung muss möglich sein, bevor man weiß, welche Figuren eine Szene enthält. Ohne Vorwissen darüber, wie die Welt strukturiert ist, nach welchen Kriterien Szenen zweckmäßigerweise zu segmentieren sind, wäre es unmöglich, aus den zweidimensionalen Helligkeitsverteilungen, auf welche die Sehwelt in unseren Augen reduziert wird, irgendwelche Figuren zu extrahieren. Natürlich hilft es zu wissen, dass in dieser Szene Pferde grasen, aber dies weist nur zusätzlich darauf hin, dass sprachlich vermittelbares Wissen von den entsprechenden auditorischen Zentren im Gehirn auf periphere Ebenen des visuellen Systems zurückprojiziert werden kann, um dort Segmentierungsprozesse zu unterstützen. In diesem Fall erfolgt die Segmentierung dann aber unter der Kontrolle von Aufmerksamkeit und wird zur bewussten Suche.
Da Segmentierung aber möglich sein muss, ohne dass vorher gewusst wird, was zu sehen ist, muss sie allgemeinen, Im System fest verankerten Gesetzen gehorchen. Es muss angeborenes oder erworbenes Wissen darüber gespeichert sein, mit welcher Wahrscheinlichkeit bestimmte Konstellationen von Mustermerkmalen für visuelle Objekte kennzeichnend sind. Dieses Regelwissen ist in den dreißiger Jahren von den Gestaltpsychologen um Max Wertheimer gründlich erforscht worden. Als starkes Gruppierungskriterium gilt zum Beispiel die Kontinuität bzw. räumliche Kontiguität von Konturen. Das Sehsystem hat die Tendenz, Konturen, die zusammenhängen, als zu einer Figur gehörig zu gruppieren. Das Gleiche gilt für Bildelemente, die nahe benachbart sind (Kriterium der Nähe) oder für Elemente, die in irgendeinem Merkmalsraum Ähnlichkeiten aufweisen, etwa die gleiche Farbe oder die gleiche Textur haben (Kriterium der Ähnlichkeit). Ein ganz besonders effizientes Gruppierungskriterium, das vermutlich angeboren ist und den meisten Spezies gemeinsam ist, wird als Kriterium des gemeinsamen Schicksals angesprochen, Wenn ein gut getarnter Käfer reglos im Laub sitzt, ist er in der Regel nicht segmentierbar und damit auch nicht erkennbar. Bewegt er sich aber, was zur Folge hat, dass sich die Konturen seines Tarnmusters alle mit der gleichen Geschwindigkeit in die gleiche Richtung bewegen, wird er sofort vom Hintergrund abgrenzbar, als Käfer identifizierbar und, wenn er Pech hat, gefressen. Kognitive Systeme wenden also zunächst relativ elementare Kohärenzkriterien an, um Bildelemente zusammenzufassen, die mit einer gewissen Wahrscheinlichkeit konstitutiv für Wahrnehmungsobjekte sind. Hinzu treten eine Reihe komplexerer Kriterien wie die Geschlossenheit oder die gute Fortsetzung sich überschneidender Konturgrenzen. Wir gehen davon aus, dass sich Konturen harmonisch und kontinuierlich fortsetzen, auch wenn sie partiell verdeckt sind. Und schließlich bewerten wir sogar symmetrische Bezüge von Musterelementen als konstitutiv für Objekte. Es werden solche Konturgrenzen gruppiert, die, wenn zusammengefasst, symmetrische Figuren ergeben. Es entspricht dies dem Faktum, dass die meisten Organismen entweder radial- oder axialsymmetrisch sind.
Footnote
Der vorliegende Beitrag, der hier mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Verlages wiedergegeben wird und in großen Teilen inhaltlich dem an der Universität Kaiserslautern gehaltenen Vortrag entspricht, erschien in dem von H.R. Fischer u. S.J. Schmidt herausgegeben Aufsatzband; "Wirklichkeit und Welterzeugung. In memoriam Nelson Goodman", Heidelberg 2000: Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag, S. 174-199.
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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  4. Charlier, M.: Pingpong mit Pingback : Lass mich Deine Suchmaschine sein: Webseiten finden neue Wege der Vernetzung (2003) 0.21
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  5. Lehmann, K.: Neues vom Gehirn : Essays zu Erkenntnissen der Neurobiologie (2017) 0.20
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