Document (#30132)

Author
Neunzert, H.
Title
¬Die Zukunft der Mathematik : nicht mehr Königin, aber wichtiger Partner von Wissenschaft und Technik
Source
Visionen. Hrsg.: Universität Kaiserslautern, H. Hofrichter
Imprint
Kaiserslautern : Universität
Year
2002
Pages
S.91-100
Abstract
Ich halte es nicht für sinnvoll, darüber zu spekulieren, wie sich eine Wissenschaft in den kommenden Jahrzehnten inhaltlich entwickeln könnte, Neue Theorien tauchen sehr schnell auf, gewinnen höchste Aufmerksamkeit und kehren dann langsam auf ein stabiles, bescheideneres Niveau zurück; man denke etwa an die Katastrophentheorie, an Chaos und Fraktale, an Fuzzy-Logik - vielleicht ist auch die Finanzmathematik schon in einem Normalisierungsprozess. Solche Entwicklungen, insbesondere das Auftreten solcher Phänomene, vorherzusagen, wäre Scharlatanerie. Aber es gibt natürlich auch langwellige Veränderungen des Charakters der Mathematik; so wechseln sich z.B. Phasen, in denen die "innere' Entwicklung der Mathematik dominiert, ab mit Phasen, in denen die Inhalte der Mathematik durch ihre Wechselwirkung mit anderen Wissenschaften bestimmt werden, Solche Phasen sind nie "rein" - immer gab es Mathematiker, die sowohl in reiner wie auch in angewandter Mathematik Bedeutendes leisteten, z.B. B. Riemann, H. Poincare, F. Klein oder N. Wiener. Aber Dominanzen waren unschwer zu erkennen, z.B. die Dominanz der reinen Mathematik im vergangenen Jahrhundert. Ebenso deutlich scheint es mir zu sein, dass wir uns seit wenigen Jahrzehnten im Phasenübergang befinden: Die Mathematik nähert sich wieder den anderen Wissenschaften - nicht nur der Physik, sondern auch der Chemie, Biologie und Medizin; sie nähert sich der Technik, z.B. den Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien, der Werkstoffwissenschaft, der Robotik usw. Es gilt aber auch das Umgekehrte: Nicht nur Naturwissenschaft und Technik benötigen die Mathematik in steigendem Umfang, selbst Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften "mathematisieren". Die Disziplinen insgesamt wachsen stärker zusammen: Ist dies vielleicht der Zukunftstrend? Hubert Markl, Präsident der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, antwortet auf die Frage, ob die Biologie zur "Leitwissenschaft" des 21. Jahrhunderts wird: "Das immer rascher fortschreitende, tiefgründige Zusammenwachsen aller naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, gemeinsam mit der praktischen Mathematik, zu einer einzigen umfassenden Wissenschaft von der Natur, die auch in weite Bereiche von Philosophie, Psychologie, Soziologie und Medizin vordringen wird, dürfte für die Wissenschaftsentwicklung des nächsten Jahrhunderts viel bestimmender sein als ein vermeintlicher Vorrang der Biologie. Erst diese Verbindung von Mathematik, Physik, Chemie und Biologie hat es möglich gemacht und wird weiter immer mehr Grundlage dafür sein, dass die Biowissenschaften sich endlich auch jenen Problemen stellen können, die ihnen ohne disziplinübergreifende Hilfestellung zu schwierig wären - nämlich alle Lebenserscheinungen bis hinein in die molekularen, ursächlichen Einzelheiten aufzuklären. " (aus "Visionen 2000", Brockhaus 1999).
Natürlich steht es mir nicht an, weiter über Biologie zu reden, aber die Einschätzung der künftigen Rolle der Mathematik, in enger Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Wissenschaften an der "Aufklärung" und Gestaltung der Welt zu arbeiten - diese Einschätzung teile ich vollkommen: Die Mathematik wird also weder "Königin der Wissenschaften" sein noch ihre Sklavin; sie wird, wie es sich für ein demokratisches Gemeinwesen gehört, ihre Aufgabe und ihren Sinn hauptsächlich als gleichberechtigter Partner von Informatik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik, von Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften finden. Das spiegelt sich auch in einer sehr aktuellen Diskussion um den Bedarf an "Computerexperten" wider; die Debatte, die mit unscharfen Begriffen (was ist schon ein "Computerexperte"?) operiert und von geringem Fachwissen (wer von den Diskutanten hat sich je in Indien umgesehen oder wenigstens mit Indern ausführlich gesprochen?) beeinträchtigt wird, zeigt trotzdem, dass wir sowohl schnell auszubildende Softwareprogrammierer wie eben auch sogenannte MINT-Professionals brauchen. MINT - ich habe den Ausdruck in der Industrie gehört - heißt Mathematik + Informatik + Naturwissenschaft + Technik; solche Professionals werden wir nur selten im Ausland "einkaufen" können - sie sind auch dort rar und nicht nur in Deutschland Mangelware, Wir müssen solche MINT-Professionals schon selbst ausbilden - ich komme am Ende auf diese Ausbildungsfrage zurück.
Field
Mathematik

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  4. Heintz, B.: ¬Die Innenwelt der Mathematik : Zur Kultur und Praxis einer beweisenden Disziplin (2000) 0.26
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