Document (#30137)

Author
Nacke, O.
Title
Veritologie - Wahrheitskunde: ein neuer Name für eine neue Disziplin
Source
Information - Wissenschaft und Praxis. 57(2006) H.4, S.226-229
Year
2006
Abstract
Vor etwa zweitausend Jahren wurden im klassischen Griechenland die Gedanken und Prinzipien formuliert, die bis heute den Geist des Abendlandes ausmachen. Zu den überlieferten Anschauungen und Sichten auf die Welt und die menschliche Gesellschaft ist seit ihrer Niederschrift im Grunde nichts wirklich Wesentliches mehr hinzugekommen. Es entstand die Demokratie, das Subjekt-Prädikat-Objekt-Prinzip der Sprache, die Idee des Atoms, die Dramatik. Aristoteles schuf die Denklehre, die Logik. "Denker" traten auf, die man als Philosophen (von griechisch philos und sophia: "Freund der Weisheit") bezeichnete, und ihre Lehre als Philosophie. Bei ihrer geistigen Auseinandersetzung über "Gott und die Welt" machten die Denker eine fatale Entdeckung: Auf fast alle Fragen, über die sie nachdachten, schien es mehrere Antworten zu geben; Antworten, die sich oft gegenseitig widersprachen. Welche aber war die richtige, war die wahre? Man brauchte einen Prüfstein, ein Kriterium für die Unterscheidung von Wahrheit und Unwahrheit. Die Suche nach einem solchen Wahrheitskriterium, erwies sich als ein Dilemma: Es fanden sich mehrere Wahrheitskriterien. Und wieder stellte sich die Frage: Welches davon war aber das richtige, das "wahre"? Um dies entscheiden zu können, hätte man das "wahre" Wahrheitskriterium, das man suchte, im Grunde bereits kennen müssen! Da beißt sich die Katze in den Schwanz. Ähnlich ging es mit den Wahrheitstheorien und den Wahrheitsdefinitionen. Man fand keine, die evident "unstrittig" absolut wahr, absolut richtig war und man hat sie trotz zweitausendjährigem intensiven Forschens und Suchens heute noch immer nicht gefunden.
Content
Liste von Wahrheits-Definitionen: 1 Nur in Urteilen ist Wahrheit oder Falschheit. Ein Urteil ist wahr, wenn es mit dem beurteilten Gegenstand übereinstimmt. 2 Wahrheit ist die Übereinstimmung der Erkenntnis mit dem Erkenntnisobjekt. 3 Eine Aussage ist genau dann wahr, wenn sich die Sachlage in der Wirklichkeit so verhält, wie es in der Aussage behauptet wird. 4 Wahr ist eine Aussage, wenn sie Erwartungen erweckt, die sich jedem normalen Mitmenschen bestätigen. 5 Wahr ist, was sich bewährt. 6 Wahrheit ist eine philosophische Kategorie, welche Übereinstimmung der Erkenntnis mit der objektiv-realen Wirklichkeit widerspiegelt. 7 Die Praxis ist das Kriterium der Wahrheit. 8 Eine Aussage, Behauptung, ein Bericht sind wahr, wenn sie einem Sachverhalt der Wirklichkeit entsprechen. 9 Wahrheit ist eine Beziehung zwischen einer Idee und seinem Objekt. 10 Wahrheit ist die logische Widerspruchslosigkeit einer Aussage innerhalb eines Systems relevanter wahrer Aussagen.

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