Document (#31064)

Author
Rauch, W.
Title
Auch Information ist eine Tochter der Zeit
Source
Information und Sprache: Beiträge zu Informationswissenschaft, Computerlinguistik, Bibliothekswesen und verwandten Fächern. Festschrift für Harald H. Zimmermann. Herausgegeben von Ilse Harms, Heinz-Dirk Luckhardt und Hans W. Giessen
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2006
Pages
S.3-6
Abstract
Die meist Francis Bacon zugeschriebene Erkenntnis veritas filia temporis - die Wahrheit ist eine Tochter der Zeit - gilt auch, sogar in noch viel höherem Maße, für Information. So trivial diese Erkenntnis auch sein mag, so wenig wird sie von Informationswissenschaft und -praxis derzeit beachtet. Das beginnt schon bei den Grundlagen unseres Faches: Der Prozess der Informationsvermittlung geht in der Regel von folgendem Modell aus: Ein Individuum (der Informationssuchende) benötigt zur Lösung einer Aufgabenstellung Information, über die dieser Informationssuchende in seinem 'erweiterten Gedächtnis' nicht verfügt (also im eigenen Gedächtnis und den zu seiner Unterstützung persönlich verfügbaren Wissenssammlungen, wie z.B. Verzeichnissen, Büchern, Ablagesystemen). Daher wendet sich der Informationssuchende an das 'kollektive Gedächtnis der Menschheit', also an Bibliotheken, Datenbanken oder das Internet, um dort jene Information zu erhalten, die zur Problemlösung benötigt wird. In diesem 'kollektiven Gedächtnis der Menschheit' gibt es Dokumente, die zur Lösung einer konkreten Problemstellung beitragen können (die sogenannten relevanten Dokumentationseinheiten), nennen wir diese Menge A. Eine konkrete Anfrage durch den Informationssuchenden liefert als Ergebnis relevante und nicht relevante Dokumente: die Menge B. Die Schnittmenge von A und B, also die gefundenen relevanten Dokumente, sind schließlich das Ergebnis des Informationsvermittlungsprozesses. An der Brauchbarkeit dieser Schnittmenge zur Problemlösung werden Erfolg oder Misserfolg einer Informationssuche gemessen (z.B. mit den Maßzahlen Recall und Precision). Das Modell geht also von einer (Teil-)Menge von gespeichertem Weltwissen aus, dem 'kollektiven Gedächtnis der Menschheit', das natürlich durchaus widersprüchlich und unvollständig sein kann und ständiger Erweiterung und Veränderung unterliegt. Während des Information-Retrieval-Vorganges ist dieses Weltwissen in Struktur und Inhalt allerdings unveränderlich und wird durch die Fragestellung des Informationssuchenden auch nicht beeinflusst. Diesem gespeicherten Weltwissen wird die konkrete ebenfalls während des Suchvorganges unveränderliche Fragestellung des Informationssuchenden gegenübergestellt. Wissenschaft, Kunst und Handwerk des Information Retrieval bestehen nun darin, in den richtigen Datensammlungen mit den besten Instrumenten und den sinnvollsten Fragestellungen zu suchen. Dieses Modell mag bei zahlreichen Retrieval-Aufgaben durchaus zutreffend sein: Bibliothekarische Anfragen, Flugplan-Informationen, Routine-Abfragen nach Lagerbeständen, Auskünfte aus einem Melderegister und ähnliche Fragestellungen werden von diesem Modell hinreichend beschrieben. Für die meisten wissenschaftlichen Aufgaben, für die Reduktion von Ungewissheit (Wersig 1971, 73ff.), für 'Wissen in Aktion' (Kuhlen 1990, 14) ist dieses Modell hingegen zu starr. Es berücksichtigt nicht, dass jedes gefundene Dokument, sobald es vom Informationssuchenden verarbeitet wird, eine Veränderung in dessen Problemsicht bewirken kann: Wenn die aufgefundene Dokumentationseinheit nicht nur redundantes Wissen enthält, wenn sie also Information bewirkt, dann muss sie ja per definitionem die Sichtweise des Fragestellers verändern. Damit ändert sich aber auch die Fragestellung selbst: Hypothesen werden erhärtet oder beginnen zu wanken, Vermutungen werden in eine bestimmte Richtung gelenkt, neue Probleme oder Lösungsmöglichkeiten tun sich auf. Die gesamte ursprüngliche Aufgabenstellung kann als richtig oder falsch erkannt werden. Damit werden neue Fragen aktuell, alte obsolet.
Jedes einzelne gefundene Dokument kann also nach seiner Verarbeitung durch einen Informationssuchenden die Fragestellung ändern und damit die Menge der relevanten Dokumente A, ebenso wie die Formulierung der Suchanfrage und damit die Menge der gefundenen Dokumente B. Die Teilmengen A und B können sich während einer Suchanfrage damit ständig verändern. Information Retrieval wird damit zu einem dynamischen Vorgang (Rauch 1994, 15 ff.), ebenso wie der Informationsbegriff sich als zeitabhängig erweist (Rauch 2004, 109 ff.). Dieses Phänomen der 'Informationsdynamik' kennt jeder Studierende, der eine Diplomarbeit schreibt, ein Kunde, der ein Produkt sucht, jeder recherchierende Journalist, ein Urlauber, der eine Reise zusammenstellt, oder ein Unternehmer, der eine Geschäftsidee entwickelt. Der Informationsvorgang ist in diesen Anwendungsfällen eben kein neutraler Prozess, der Realität beschreibt, wie sie ist. Information Retrieval ist vielmehr selbst Teil der Realität, beeinflusst diese und verändert sie. Der Information-Retrieval-Vorgang verändert also zuerst die Weltsicht des Informationssuchenden (das 'interne Außenweltmodell') und damit dessen 'erweitertes Gedächtnis'. Es werden diesem Gedächtnis neue Inhalte hinzugefügt, alte möglicherweise verändert oder gar verworfen, neue Strukturen, Assoziationen, Verbindungen hergestellt. Wenn der Informationssuchende diese neuen Erkenntnisse anderen Menschen mitteilt, dann beginnt sich in einem zweiten Schritt möglicherweise langsam auch das kollektive Gedächtnis der Menschheit zu verändern: Eine Erkenntnis beginnt sich durchzusetzen, ein Gedanke verbreitet sich. Diese Rückkoppelung der eigenen Erkenntnis mit dem kollektiven Gedächtnis der Menschheit war in einer Sprechkultur noch leicht möglich. Das Wissen der Menschheit war in Sagen und Märchen, in Bauernweisheiten und Sinnsprüchen, in Gesängen und Epen, in Schulen und Akademien festgehalten. Das Wissen wurde mündlich weitergegeben und der Vermittler der Information war mit den Zuhörern unmittelbar konfrontiert: Zustimmung oder Ablehnung, Abweichung oder Übereinstimmung mit den Meinungen der Zuhörer wurden sofort wahrgenommen. Das kollektive Gedächtnis der Menschheit konnte daher auf Veränderungen der Welt reagieren, Fehler ausbessern und sich den geänderten Ansichten der Zuhörer anpassen, neue Erkenntnisse rasch übernehmen. Das System konnte damit Inhalte und Strukturen flexibel weiterentwickeln. Allerdings war es in seiner zeitlichen und örtlichen Verbreitung langsam, Änderungen wurden nicht dokumentiert, die Quellen des Wissens waren in der Regel nicht bekannt. Mit seiner Ausbreitung in Zeit und Raum konnte es sich unterschiedlich verändern. ...
Theme
Information

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  5. Kaiser, A.: Computer-unterstütztes Indexieren in Intelligenten Information Retrieval Systemen : Ein Relevanz-Feedback orientierter Ansatz zur Informationserschließung in unformatierten Datenbanken (1993) 0.21
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