Document (#31082)

Author
Lepsky, K.
Title
Automatische Indexierung des Reallexikons zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte
Source
Information und Sprache: Beiträge zu Informationswissenschaft, Computerlinguistik, Bibliothekswesen und verwandten Fächern. Festschrift für Harald H. Zimmermann. Herausgegeben von Ilse Harms, Heinz-Dirk Luckhardt und Hans W. Giessen
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2006
Pages
S.169-178
Abstract
Digitalisierungsvorhaben sorgen für eine immer größere Verfügbarkeit von Inhalten bislang ausschließlich gedruckt vorliegender Werke, zunehmend auch von ganzen Büchern. Projekte wie "Google Print" versprechen die völlige elektronische Verfügbarkeit von Informationen nahezu unabhängig von Zeit und Ort und sorgen dafür, dass die Hüter der konventionellen Information, die Bibliotheken, in Angst und Schrecken versetzt werden angesichts des befürchteten Verlusts ihrer traditionellen Rolle. Die Debatte kreist dabei eher selten um die Frage, welcher Nutzen sich konkret aus dem elektronischen Volltext ergibt: Der Nutzen steht schlichtweg außer Frage, Volltexte gelten prinzipiell als nützlich. Das ist insofern zu optimistisch, als die reine Verfügbarkeit von Information noch lange nicht fir deren sinnvolle Verwertung sorgt - die bloße Verfügbarkeit des Volltexts von Kants "Kritik der reinen Vernunft" enthebt nicht der Notwendigkeit, das Werk zu lesen und verstehen zu wollen. Lesen wird man besser auch nicht am Bildschirm sondern in der (neu-deutsch) "PrintAusgabe". Elektronische Volltexte von Büchern dienen nicht der Lektüre. Falls ihr Sinn nicht ohnehin ein rein verkaufsfördernder ist (das "Publishers Program" von Google Print erweckt in der Tat diesen Eindruck), bleibt ihr potenzieller Nutzen als Nachschlageinstrument. Nur der Volltext bietet die Möglichkeit, Informationen in einem Werk zu finden, die nicht explizit erschlossen wurden, durch ein Inhaltsverzeichnis etwa oder, eine noch günstigere Ausgangslage, durch ein Sachregister. Allerdings sind die meisten Werke nicht für einen solchen Zweck verfasst worden, d.h. es ist nicht zu erwarten, dass ein Werk über die "Geschichte des Römischen Reiches" im Volltextzugriff zu einem Lexikon zur Geschichte des Römischen Reiches wird. Entspricht also die hinter Google Print und zahllosen anderen Digitalisierungsinitiativen stehende Auffassung einem doch sehr naiven Bild von der Nützlichkeit gedruckter Information?
Seriöse Information darf erwarten, wer renommierte Nachschlagewerke befragt. Zumindest für die über die Primärordnung (Stichwort/Lemma) erschlossenen Sachverhalte ist für Buchausgaben ein gezielter Zugriff möglich, Verweisungen zwischen Artikeln sorgen für weitere Einstiege. Anzunehmen ist, dass sich der Nutzen von Nachschlagewerken in elektronischer Form noch deutlich erhöhen lässt: Produkte wie z.B. "Brockhaus multimedial" oder "Encyclopedia Britannica" sorgen mit leistungsfähigen Techniken über den wahlfreien Volltextzugriff hinaus für zahlreiche Navigations- und Recherchemöglichkeiten. Es liegt daher nahe, über eine Digitalisierung konventionell vorliegender Nachschlagewerke auch deren Anwendung zu verbessern, die im Print möglichen Zugriffsmöglichkeiten deutlich zu erweitern. Beispiele für diesen Ansatz sind die Digitalisierung der "Oekonomischen Encyklopädie" von Johann Georg Krünitz, die mit hohem Aufwand nicht maschinell (Scanning und OCR) sondern manuell realisiert wurde oder auch die im "Projekt Runeberg' , vorgenommenen zahlreichen Digitalisierungen u.a. auch von Nachschlagewerken. Ob die einfache Volltextindexierung derartig umfangreicher und - weil bereits als Nachschlagewerk konzipiert - gleichzeitig extrem verdichteter Quellen für einen größtmöglichen Nutzen der elektronischen Version ausreicht, darf zu Recht bezweifelt werden. In kommerziellen Produkten sorgen daher zusätzliche Techniken für einerseits thematisch gezielte Zugriffe auch über Nicht-Stichwörter, andererseits für Querverbindungen zu möglicherweise weiteren Artikeln von Interesse ("Wissensnetz" des Brockhaus, "Knowledge Navigator" der Britannica). Es darf angenommen werden, dass derartige Techniken dabei auf Informationen aufsetzen können (Strukturierung der Artikel, gekennzeichnete (getaggte) Personennamen, Querverweise etc.), die in den zu verarbeitenden Artikeln in nutzbarer Form vorliegen. Für digitalisierte Druckausgaben kommen derartige Verfahren nicht in Frage, weil lediglich flache, noch dazu in der Regel mit OCR-Fehlern behaftete Texte vorliegen. Die Zugriffsmöglichkeiten bewegen sich daher zwischen der 1:1-Umsetzung der Druckausgabe, d.h. dem Primärzugriff über Stichwort, und der Volltextsuche auf den vollständigen Lexikontext. Beides ist angesichts der im elektronischen Volltext liegenden Möglichkeiten sicher nicht die Methode der Wahl. Für die Digitalisierung des "Reallexikons zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte" im Rahmen des von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft geförderten Projekts "RDKWeb" wird daher versucht, mit den Mitteln der Automatischen Indexierung eine Lösung zu erzielen, die über eine reine Volltextsuchmöglichkeit hinaus Suchunterstützungen bietet, die sich an den Fähigkeiten kommerzieller Produkte orientieren (nicht messen!).
Theme
Automatisches Indexieren
Object
RDK

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  4. Ramm, T.: ¬Der Computer ersetzt den Lesesaal : Die Wissenschaftspublikation im digitalen Zeitalter - Verleger und Bibliothekare müssen künftig Informationsvermeidung betreiben (2001) 0.17
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  5. Meyer, R.: Allein, es wär' so schön gewesen : Der Copernic Summarzier kann Internettexte leider nicht befriedigend und sinnvoll zusammenfassen (2002) 0.15
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