Document (#31966)

Editor
Sandore, B.
Title
Progress in visual information access and retrieval
Issue
[Themenheft].
Source
Library trends. 48(1999) no.2, S.291-520
Year
1999
Abstract
The development of innovative retrieval approaches for access to visual information is among the most significant of technological, conceptual, and institutional challenges for the library and information science community. On a conceptual level, it is clear that humans employ a variety of socio-cognitive processes, as well as sensory skills, in the retrieval and evaluation of visual information. From an institutional standpoint, libraries, archives, and museums have entered into digitization projects, varying in scope and scale, the results of which are beginning to challenge the manner in which information is described, stored, and delivered. The primary goal of this issue of Library Trends is to present practitioners, researchers, and educators in the areas of library and information science, archives, and museums, as well as "imagists" working with visual resources in any setting, with a current perspective on the development of visual information retrieval and access tools. The issue's scope is limited to the analysis and retrieval of bit-mapped or raster images and video (images that are comprised of pixels of varying color information values) and does not include work with vector graphics (images encoded as numeric formulas that represent lines and curves-e.g., Geographic Information Systems [GIS]). The contributions provide perspectives from researchers and practitioners-specialists in the areas of library and information science and computer science. In planning this issue, a conscious effort was made to include a perspective on the developing foundation of visual information retrieval, as well as work representing current and experimental systems. The issue is divided into three sections-I. Foundations of Intellectual Access to Visual Information, II. Implementation and Evaluation, and III. Experimentation.
Since 1988, two issues of Library Trends have been devoted to various aspects of image and multimedia information retrieval. In each issue, the editors call for a synergy across the disciplines that develop image retrieval systems and those that utilize these systems. Stam and Giral, in the 1988 issue of Library Trends titled "Linking Art Objects and Art Information," emphasize the need for a thorough understanding of the visual information-seeking behaviors of image database users. Writing in a 1990 issue of Library Trends devoted to graphical information retrieval, Mark Rorvig takes up the fundamental issue that "what can be listed cannot always be found" and uses that statement as a framework for examining progress in intellectual access to visual information. In the ensuing decade, several critical events have unfolded that have brought about some of the needed collaboration across disciplines and have enhanced the potential for advancements in the area of visual information retrieval. First, the field of computer vision has grown exponentially within the past decade, producing tools that enable the retrieval of visual information, especially for objects with no accompanying structural, administrative, or descriptive text information. Second, the Internet, more specifically the Web, has become a common channel for the transmission of graphical information, thus moving visual information retrieval rapidly from stand-alone workstations and databases into a networked environment. Third, the use of the Web to provide access to the search and retrieval mechanisms for visual and other forms of information has spawned the development of emerging standards for metadata about these objects as well as the creation of commonly employed methods to achieve interoperability across the searching of visual, textual, and other multimedia repositories. Practicality has begun to dictate that the indexing of huge collections of images by hand is a task that is both labor intensive and expensive-in many cases more than can be afforded to provide some method of intellectual access to digital image collections. In the world of text retrieval, text "speaks for itself" whereas image analysis requires a combination of high-level concept creation as well as the processing and interpretation of inherent visual features. In the area of intellectual access to visual information, the interplay between human and machine image indexing methods has begun to influence the development of visual information retrieval systems. Research and application by the visual information retrieval (VIR) community suggests that the most fruitful approaches to VIR involve analysis of the type of information being sought, the domain in which it will be used, and systematic testing to identify optimal retrieval methods.
Section I-"Foundations of Access to Visual Information"-is intended to provide a background in the familiar concept-based approach to describing and retrieving images, as well as the more recently developed content-based approach to visual information retrieval using inherent features such as color, shape, and texture. The importance of the articles in this section cannot be over-emphasized. In their own way, each clarifies the inevitable need to consider the interaction between high-level semantic concepts and inherent content in VIR. Content retrieval, the area which is newest to the library and information science community, will demand increased understanding and analysis in order to determine its value to users as we build more robust and lasting visual information retrieval systems. The authors in section I emphasize the need for a greater understanding of the interplay between concept-based indexing (performed by humans) and the automatic or semi-automatic process of indexing an image or a video sequence (using software) based on inherent image attributes. Section II-"Implementation and Evaluation"-focuses more specifically on the implementation and evaluation of visual information retrieval systems with cultural heritage information since this is a primary interest of libraries, museums, and archives. Section III-"Experimental Approaches"-presents articles describing three research projects that examine various aspects of image or combined image and text retrieval methods. The work represented in this issue suggests that a number of professional communities are contributing different but essential components to the development of useful and innovative image retrieval systems. In spite of the great technology strides in multimedia, image database developers and image content holders continue to grapple with the fluid issues of organization, access, retrieval, delivery, and representation. Computers now enable users to incorporate images of art and other works into their own personal information contexts-images which have for centuries been a powerful and efficient medium for conveying landmark concepts, emotions, and events. The concomitant challenge for libraries, museums, and archives also involves a shift-not only in technology and practice but also in focus-i.e., to equip ourselves with an effective understanding of the similarities and differences between text and multimedia information retrieval, and to use this knowledge as a foundation for developing effective access and archiving methods.
Content
Enthält die Beiträge: Part I-Foundations of Access to Visual Information Intellectual Access to Images (Hsin-liang Chen and Edie M. Rasmussen) - Image Retrieval as Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Visual Model Matching (P. Bryan Heidorn) - Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences (D. A. Forsyth) Part II-Implementation and Evaluation Securing Digital Image Assets in Museums and Libraries: A Risk Management Approach (Teresa Grose Beamsley) - Getting the Picture: Observations from the Library of Congress on Providing Access to Pictorial Images (Caroline R. Arms) - Recent Developments in Cultural Heritage Image Databases: Directions for User-Centered Design (Christie Stephenson) - Evaluation of Image Retrieval Systems: Role of User Feedback (Samantha K. Hastings) Part III-Experimental Approaches Information Retrieval Beyond the Text Document (Yong Rui, Michael Ortega, Thomas S. Huang, and Sharad Mehrotra) - Precise and Efficient Retrieval of Captioned Images: The MARIE Project (Neil C. Rowe) - Exploiting Multimodal Context in Image Retrieval (Rohini K. Srihari and Zhongfei Zhang)
Footnote
Issue devoted to the theme of visual information access and retrieval
Form
Bilder

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