Document (#31976)

Editor
Bowker, G.C. u. S.L. Star
Title
How classifications work : problems and challenges in an electronic age
Issue
[Themenheft].
Source
Library trends. 47(1998) no.2, S.185-340
Year
1998
Abstract
At the most technical core of traditional library science, classification stands as a bridge builder between the past and the future of our field. Anthropologists have long seen classification as a tool for understanding culture. Classification involves the informal embedded in the formal and vice versa. If anthropological/cultural distinctions shape culture, the attempt formally to evaluate and improve those distinctions forms much of what we think of as information systems. We then take cultural cues from the systems so created. In traditional library classification research, there have been two distinct challenges. The first is an ethnographic challenge: What distinctions does this specific group of clients use in forming their knowledge culture? How may we mirror in the thesauri, catalogs, and other search and retrieval tools we create for them? This challenge is one of understanding the sense of vernacular terms. Here the information science researcher becomes an anthropologist-i.e., how to disambiguate terms, decide what distinctions are really necessary, and which are reflections of ephemeral debates or fads? The second challenge is a formal one in two parts, concerning the structure of the information system or tool: - Occam's razor: How many terms can we afford given system capacity, user capability, and the means of distribution? - Structural soundness: Are logical flows followed, are the branches of the tree carrying the right weight in proportion to the trunk, are the means of navigation easily grasped for accurate modeling?
There are no a priori solutions here: each scheme must be taken in its own context of use. Classifications that work in the real world must meet both challenges simultaneously. For example, in studying the history of the International Classification of Diseases, we noted that the designers of this global classification system must constantly make practical tradeoffs between the two challenges. In order to do justice to the range of subtle vernacular terms used by medical personnel around the world, a huge unwieldy list would have to be developed. In order for physicians and other users to actually employ the system, a much shorter key to filling out forms is the only possible alternative. As the Internet, Web, and various digital libraries burst their boundaries and appear on desktops and in homes, the tension between these two challenges deepens. What do we understand about the interplay between vernacular classifications and the more formal structures underlying search engines, online catalogs, and other electronic guides? For groups of users that may be both global and unknown, what is the meaning of joining the two aspects of classification? What is usability in the context of both the Web and the intimate desktop? The combination of the cultural and the formal in turn produces a third challenge-a moral and ethical one. For large-scale systems, whose voices will be heard and whose silenced? Whose culture will become the taken-for-granted and whose the exotic other? Where makers and users of classification systems do not address these questions, silent inequities prevail. The articles in this collection each address this set of issues from a variety of angles.
Library and information science stands at a historical crossroads. New information tools appear daily and are used in more kinds of settings than before. They are part of not only desktops or kiosks but, increasingly, of living rooms, gyms, cars, banks, and hospitals inter alia. The formal tools of classification construction and evaluation, and decades of experience and research in working with client populations, give us a unique suite of tools for understanding this phenomenon. As sleeping beauty wakes up in this new world, there is a unique opportunity for her to build bridges across its rivers and canyons.
Content
Enthält die Beiträge: Introduction (Geoffrey C. Bowker and Susan Leigh Star) - Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS (Jeffrey T. Huber and Mary L. Gillaspy) - Seeking the Subject (Jennifer Tobias) - Grounded Classification: Grounded Theory and Faceted Classification (Susan Leigh Star) - Mapping Beyond Dewey's Boundaries: Constructing Classification Space for Marginalized Knowledge Domains (Hope A. Olson) - The Kindness of Strangers: Kinds and Politics in Classification Systems (Geoffrey C. Bowker) - The Dynamics of Classification Systems as Boundary Objects for Cooperation in the Electronic Library (Hanne Albrechtsen and Elin K. Jacob) - Psychiatrists Make Diagnoses, but not in Circumstances of Their Own Choosing: Agency and Structure in the DSM (Mark A. Spasser
Footnote
Rez. in: JASIS 51(2000) no.5, S.490-491 (B. Lewis); KO 26(1999) no.3, S.168-169 (C. Jacobs)

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