Document (#32068)

Author
Fischer, W.L.
Title
Äquivalenz- und Toleranzstrukturen in der Linguistik : zur Theorie der Synonyma
Imprint
München : Hueber
Year
1973
Pages
90 S
Series
Linguistische Reihe; Bd.15
Abstract
In verschiedenen Bereichen der Linguistik, im Strukturalismus, in der mathematischen Text- und Literaturtheorie spielen Äquivalenzrelationen als mathematische Modelle für empirische Relationen eine zentrale Rolle. Ohne im Einzelfall um einen detaillierten Nachweis bemüht zu sein, geht man im allgemeinen davon aus, daß die Gesetze, die eine Äquivalenzrelation in abstracto charakterisieren, in dem von der Äquivalenzstruktur modellierten realen Phänomen erfüllt sind. Bei genauer Analyse der jeweiligen Situation zeigt es sich jedoch häufig, daß die betreffenden empirischen Relationen nicht allen charakteristischen Eigenschaften der Äquivalenzrelationen genügen bzw. daß es große Schwierigkeiten bereitet, die Gültigkeit z.B. der Eigenschaft der Transitivität nachzuweisen. In all diesen Fällen schlagen wir daher vor, der abstrakten Modellbildung einen schwächeren Begriff, den der "Toleranzrelation" (bzw. des "Toleranzraumes") zugrundezulegen. In den Teilen 1. und 2. stellen wir die formalen Theorien der Äquivalenzrelationen und der Toleranzrelationen einander gegenüber und zeigen, wie sich beide in die Methodologie der Wissenschaften einordnen. In Teil 3. zeigen wir am Problembereich des Synonymenbegriffs inwiefern die schwächere Struktur des Toleranzraumes in vielen Fällen die konkrete Situation angemessener darstellt als ein Äquivalenzgebilde. Wir werden in diesem Zusammenhang die Elemente der von einer Toleranzrelation induzierten Topologie entwickeln und die Grundbeziehungen einer entsprechenden Topologisierung des Wortraumes einer gegebenen Sprache vorstellen. Die letztgenannte Modellstruktur, die zu einer Topologisierung von Worträumen Anlaß gibt, läßt sich auch ausgehend von Modellvorstellungen der inhaltbezogenen Grammatik motivieren. Von zentraler Bedeutung ist dort der Begriff des Wortfeldes. Wir werden mit diesem Begriff bewußt keine physikalischen Vorstellungen verbinden. Zu "Kraft" und "Kraftlinien" im physikalischen Modell lassen sich im (indogermanischen) Sprachbereich im Sinne der inhaltbezogenen Grammatik nur sehr dürftige Entsprechungen finden, die wenigstens in einigen ihrer Eigenschaften den Bezug auf die physikalischen Begriffe "Kraft" und "Kraftlinie" rechtfertigten. Physikalische Analogien scheinen im Zusammenhang mit dem Wortfeld` nur den metaphorischen Charakter eines hermeneutischen Gefasels zu haben.
Wir beschränken uns daher auf die Darstellung des sprachlichen Feldbegriffes durch ein mathematisches Modell ... bzw.: wir definieren das sprachliche Feld über ein mathematisches Modell. Die Feldeigenschaften in einem System sprachlicher Entitäten sind zunächst solche des gegenseitigen Benachbartseins. Wir können von syntaktischen und/oder semantischen Umgebungen sprechen, in denen jeweils alle zu einem Wort (einer sprachlichen Einheit) synonymen oder sinnverwandten oder strukturverwandten Worte (Einheiten) liegen. Die Eigenschaften von Wortfeldern sind also in dieser Sicht vornehmlich topologischer Natur. Dabei bleibt es gleichgültig, welchem Autor man folgt, wenn man den Feldbegriff in der Sprache zu erfassen trachtet. Immer sind es Umgebungs-, Nachbarschaftsrelationen und fundierende Toleranzrelationen, die als formaler, sprich: mathematischer Kern inhärent sind. Bemerkungen über die Möglichkeit einer algebraisch-topologischen Kennzeichnung von Wortfeldsystemen beschließen Teil 3. In Teil 4. stellen wir den Begriff der k-Toleranzrelation vor. Relationen dieser Art stehen in gewissem Sinne zwischen den Äquivalenzrelationen und den Toleranzrelationen. Mit Modellbildungen auf der Basis von k-Toleranzrelationen kommt man der Realität der Sprache vielleicht am nächsten. Für den Problemkreis der Synonymität bedeutet ihre Einführung, daß man jetzt weder die Gültigkeit strenger Äquivalenz noch die schwache Bedingung der Ununterscheidbarkeit fordert, sondern nur eine k-Ununterscheidbarkeit. Relationentheoretisch entspricht dem die Forderung einer abgeschwächten Transitivität. In Teil 5. deuten wir an, wie man die in Teil 3. angegebenen Definitionsschemata für Synonyma auf der Grundlage der k-Toleranzräume verschärfen kann.
Footnote
Vgl. auch: Rieger, B.: Unscharfe Semantik natürlicher Sprache. Zum Problem der Repräsentation und Analyse vager Wortbedeutung. Unter: http://www.ldv.uni-trier.de/ldv_archiv/http/www/public_html/ldvpage/rieger/pub/aufsaetze/scharf/scharf81.html.
Theme
Linguistik
LCSH
Semantics
Synonyms
Language and languages / Philosophy
RSWK
Äquivalenz / Linguistik
LCC
P325.F54

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