Document (#32376)

Author
Schulz, W.
Held, T.
Title
¬Der Index auf dem Index? : Selbstzensur und Zensur bei Suchmaschinen
Source
Macht der Suchmaschinen: The Power of Search Engines. Hrsg.: Machill, M. u. M. Beiler
Imprint
Köln : Halem
Year
2007
Pages
S.71-86
Abstract
Suchmaschinen gelten als Gatekeeper in der öffentlichen Kommunikation. Zumindest für bestimmte Typen von Seitenaufrufen stellen Suchmaschinen den mit Abstand häufigsten Weg des Zugangs zu Internet-Inhalten dar. Deshalb können Beeinflussungen des Index von Suchmaschinen oder der Algorithmen, die die Ergebnislisten steuern, als hochsensibler Eingriff in die Internet-basierte Kommunikation angesehen werden. Dies lenkt die Aufmerksamkeit auf die >Policies< der Suchmaschinenanbieter, auch im Hinblick auf externe Anforderungen, die etwa von Nationalstaaten an sie gerichtet werden. Vor allem der Anbieter Google ist in die Kritik geraten, weil er in seinem Angebot in China Seiten aus dem Index löscht, die von der chinesischen Regierung als staatsgefährdend angesehen werden. Google beruft sich darauf, nur die dortigen Gesetze zu befolgen. Auch in Deutschland werden Seiten gefiltert. In der Internetgemeinde ist dann schnell das Wort >Zensur< zu hören. Im Folgenden soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, wann nach deutschem Verständnis von Zensur gesprochen werden kann. Dabei soll deutlich werden, wo Unterschiede in den nationalstaatlichen Politiken, aber auch bei den Kooperationen der Suchmaschinenanbieter mit den Nationalstaaten bestehen.
Theme
Suchmaschinen

Similar documents (author)

  1. Schulz, H.: Zur Charakterisierung der BBK/A (1988) 4.65
    4.652114 = sum of:
      4.652114 = weight(author_txt:schulz in 90) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.652114 = score(doc=90,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.13434751 = queryNorm
          4.6521144 = fieldWeight in 90, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=90)
    
  2. Schulz, U.: Was ist eine sinnvolle Schlagwortsyntax (eine Polemik) (1991) 4.65
    4.652114 = sum of:
      4.652114 = weight(author_txt:schulz in 129) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.652114 = score(doc=129,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.13434751 = queryNorm
          4.6521144 = fieldWeight in 129, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=129)
    
  3. Schulz, U.: Einführung in die Grundlagen der inhaltlichen Erschließung mit BISMAS am Fachbereich BID der FHS Hannover (1991) 4.65
    4.652114 = sum of:
      4.652114 = weight(author_txt:schulz in 458) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.652114 = score(doc=458,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.13434751 = queryNorm
          4.6521144 = fieldWeight in 458, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=458)
    
  4. Schulz, U.: ¬Die niederländische Basisklassifikation: eine Alternative für die "Sachgruppen" im Fremddatenangebot der Deutschen Bibliothek (1991) 4.65
    4.652114 = sum of:
      4.652114 = weight(author_txt:schulz in 949) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.652114 = score(doc=949,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.13434751 = queryNorm
          4.6521144 = fieldWeight in 949, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=949)
    
  5. Schulz, H.: ¬Die Adaption der BBK : Ergänzungen zur Methodik (1983) 4.65
    4.652114 = sum of:
      4.652114 = weight(author_txt:schulz in 1125) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.652114 = score(doc=1125,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.13434751 = queryNorm
          4.6521144 = fieldWeight in 1125, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.4433827 = idf(docFreq=67, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1125)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Krüger, K.: Suchmaschinen-Spamming : Vergleichend-kritische Analysen zur Wirkung kommerzieller Strategien der Website-Optimierung auf das Ranking in www-Suchmaschinen (2004) 0.19
    0.19106708 = sum of:
      0.19106708 = product of:
        0.68238246 = sum of:
          0.1464029 = weight(abstract_txt:ergebnislisten in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1464029 = score(doc=4701,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17164662 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.105608 = boost
                9.097941 = idf(docFreq=12, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.852932 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.097941 = idf(docFreq=12, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.057825644 = weight(abstract_txt:soll in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.057825644 = score(doc=4701,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11641952 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2876903 = boost
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.49670058 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.06088634 = weight(abstract_txt:google in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06088634 = score(doc=4701,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.120492145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3100199 = boost
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.50531375 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.031169368 = weight(abstract_txt:auch in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.031169368 = score(doc=4701,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08826623 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3732241 = boost
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.35312903 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.14381148 = weight(abstract_txt:seiten in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14381148 = score(doc=4701,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1696151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5542854 = boost
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.8478695 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.15801749 = weight(abstract_txt:suchmaschinen in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15801749 = score(doc=4701,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2866986 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8577635 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.55116236 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
          0.084269315 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 4701) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.084269315 = score(doc=4701,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1803313 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9982517 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.46730274 = fieldWeight in 4701, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4701)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  2. Strzolka, R.: ¬Das Internet als Weltbibliothek : Suchmaschinen und ihre Bedeutung für den Wissenserwerb (2008) 0.17
    0.17033826 = sum of:
      0.17033826 = product of:
        0.85169125 = sum of:
          0.07221958 = weight(abstract_txt:zugangs in 4332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07221958 = score(doc=4332,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14042129 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.228904 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.5143065 = fieldWeight in 4332, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.228904 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4332)
          0.05740419 = weight(abstract_txt:google in 4332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05740419 = score(doc=4332,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.120492145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3100199 = boost
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.47641438 = fieldWeight in 4332, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4332)
          0.02077958 = weight(abstract_txt:auch in 4332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02077958 = score(doc=4332,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08826623 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3732241 = boost
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.23541936 = fieldWeight in 4332, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4332)
          0.14898032 = weight(abstract_txt:suchmaschinen in 4332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14898032 = score(doc=4332,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.2866986 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8577635 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.51964086 = fieldWeight in 4332, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4332)
          0.55230755 = weight(abstract_txt:zensur in 4332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.55230755 = score(doc=4332,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.54506755 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.4124737 = boost
                9.360306 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              1.0132828 = fieldWeight in 4332, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                9.360306 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4332)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  3. Pothe, A.: Nachgezählt : Wie groß ist das WWW? (2004) 0.15
    0.15425102 = sum of:
      0.15425102 = product of:
        0.77125514 = sum of:
          0.10147724 = weight(abstract_txt:google in 4037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10147724 = score(doc=4037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.120492145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3100199 = boost
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.84218967 = fieldWeight in 4037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=4037)
          0.16948345 = weight(abstract_txt:seiten in 4037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16948345 = score(doc=4037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1696151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5542854 = boost
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.9992238 = fieldWeight in 4037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=4037)
          0.13761964 = weight(abstract_txt:index in 4037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13761964 = score(doc=4037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18599871 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3018048 = boost
                4.7353325 = idf(docFreq=1019, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.7398957 = fieldWeight in 4037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.7353325 = idf(docFreq=1019, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=4037)
          0.2633625 = weight(abstract_txt:suchmaschinen in 4037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2633625 = score(doc=4037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2866986 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8577635 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.918604 = fieldWeight in 4037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=4037)
          0.09931233 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 4037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09931233 = score(doc=4037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1803313 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9982517 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.5507215 = fieldWeight in 4037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=4037)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  4. Wegweiser im Netz : Qualität und Nutzung von Suchmaschinen (2004) 0.14
    0.14217953 = sum of:
      0.14217953 = product of:
        0.50778407 = sum of:
          0.08540169 = weight(abstract_txt:gatekeeper in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08540169 = score(doc=3859,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17164662 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.105608 = boost
                9.097941 = idf(docFreq=12, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.49754366 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.097941 = idf(docFreq=12, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.033731624 = weight(abstract_txt:soll in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.033731624 = score(doc=3859,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11641952 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2876903 = boost
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.289742 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.035517033 = weight(abstract_txt:google in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035517033 = score(doc=3859,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.120492145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3100199 = boost
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.29476637 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.018182132 = weight(abstract_txt:auch in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018182132 = score(doc=3859,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08826623 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3732241 = boost
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.20599194 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.05931921 = weight(abstract_txt:seiten in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05931921 = score(doc=3859,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1696151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5542854 = boost
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.34972835 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.3950324 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.20611376 = weight(abstract_txt:suchmaschinen in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20611376 = score(doc=3859,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.2866986 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8577635 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.71892136 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
          0.06951863 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 3859) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06951863 = score(doc=3859,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.1803313 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9982517 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.38550508 = fieldWeight in 3859, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3859)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  5. cw: Google erweitert Suchangebot (2003) 0.13
    0.13090205 = sum of:
      0.13090205 = product of:
        0.65451026 = sum of:
          0.09637607 = weight(abstract_txt:soll in 2231) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09637607 = score(doc=2231,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11641952 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2876903 = boost
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.8278343 = fieldWeight in 2231, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2981396 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=2231)
          0.14351048 = weight(abstract_txt:google in 2231) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14351048 = score(doc=2231,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.120492145 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3100199 = boost
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              1.191036 = fieldWeight in 2231, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.3900137 = idf(docFreq=529, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=2231)
          0.05194895 = weight(abstract_txt:auch in 2231) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05194895 = score(doc=2231,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08826623 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3732241 = boost
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.5885484 = fieldWeight in 2231, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7667098 = idf(docFreq=2686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=2231)
          0.2633625 = weight(abstract_txt:suchmaschinen in 2231) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2633625 = score(doc=2231,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2866986 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8577635 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.918604 = fieldWeight in 2231, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=2231)
          0.09931233 = weight(abstract_txt:werden in 2231) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09931233 = score(doc=2231,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1803313 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9982517 = boost
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017064398 = queryNorm
              0.5507215 = fieldWeight in 2231, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.524618 = idf(docFreq=3422, maxDocs=42740)
                0.15625 = fieldNorm(doc=2231)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)