Document (#32392)

Author
Kink, N.
Hess, T.
Title
Suchmaschinen als Substitut traditioneller Medien? : Erste Ergebnisse einer Studie zum Wandel der Informationsbeschaffung durch Suchmaschinen
Source
Macht der Suchmaschinen: The Power of Search Engines. Hrsg.: Machill, M. u. M. Beiler
Imprint
Köln : Halem
Year
2007
Pages
S.298-307
Abstract
Das Internet hat sich in den letzten Jahren rasant verbreitet und zählt weltweit über eine Milliarde Nutzer. Parallel dazu haben Suchmaschinen den Informationsmarkt erobert. Sie sind mittlerweile nicht mehr >nur< der zentrale Zugangsweg zum umfangreichen Informationsangebot des Internets, sondern haben darüber hinaus nachhaltige Wirkung auf die Medienbranche. Allein auf die Suchmaschine Google greifen monatlich ca. 380 Millionen Informationssuchende zu (vgl. Google 2006). Der Börsengang des SuchmaschinenAnbieters spiegelt die wachsende Bedeutung wider. Auch empirische Studien belegen, dass Suchmaschinen zunehmend in den Alltag integriert werden, eine Gatekeeper-Funktion wahrnehmen und dadurch die Informationsbeschaffung grundlegend ändern können. Da die zunehmende Verbreitung von Suchmaschinen mit einer Verdrängung alternativer Medienangebote einhergehen kann, hat diese Entwicklung auch das Interesse traditioneller Medienunternehmen geweckt. Allerdings wurden die Folgen für Medienanbieter bislang kaum erforscht. Mit unserer empirischen Studie wollen wir genau diese Forschungslücke verkleinern. Im Vordergrund stehen Fragestellungen zur Beurteilung und Anwendung von Suchmaschinen aus Nutzersicht und den sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen für traditionelle Medienanbieter. Konkret sollen erste Anhaltspunkte dafür gewonnen werden, welche Medien' Informationssuchende durch den Gebrauch von Suchmaschinen, ersetzen, welche sie ergänzend nutzen und warum. Aufgrund des relativ neuen Forschungsgebiets haben wir zur Untersuchung der Fragestellungen qualitative Forschungsmethoden eingesetzt, die einen umfassenden Überblick über das Untersuchungsgebiet schaffen. Es wurde ein Leitfaden konzipiert, anhand dessen den Befragten in einer trichterförmig angeordneten Reihenfolge mehrere offene Fragen gestellt wurden. Diese trichterförmige Anordnung - angefangen bei allgemeinen bis hin zu gezielten Fragen - stellte sicher, dass die Interviewpartner ihre persönliche Meinung uneingeschränkt äußern konnten und erlaubte gleichzeitig eine Quantifizierung der konkreten Antworten. Nach erfolgreichem Pretest wurde das Leitfadeninterview im Sommer 2005 mit 19 Personen durchgeführt. Unsere Stichprobe setzt sich aus acht Experten aus thematiknahen Berufen und elf Studenten unterschiedlicher Studienrichtungen zusammen. Zu den Experten zählen Unternehmensberater, Praktiker und Wissenschaftler aus dem Medienbereich. Die Studenten stammen aus den Fachrichtungen Informatik, BWL und Psychologie. Alle ca. 50-minütigen Interviews wurden mit einem Diktiergerät aufgezeichnet und wortwörtlich transkribiert. Anhand eines Excel-basierten Codeplans wurden die Aussagen diversen Haupt- und Unterkategorien zugeordnet und in ausgewählten Kategorien Häufigkeiten berechnet. Wie bei qualitativen Verfahren üblich, wurde auf Statement-Basis ausgewertet, sodass die Summe der Statements die Anzahl an Befragten übersteigen kann. Um den Aussagen Einzelner kein zu großes Gewicht zu geben, wurden wiederholte Aussagen zu einer Kategorie nur einfach gewertet. Die Ergebnisse der Befragung werden nachfolgend vorgestellt und eingeordnet.
Theme
Suchmaschinen
Field
Kommunikationswissenschaften

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