Document (#32752)

Author
Capurro, R.
Title
Skeptisches Wissensmanagement
Source
http://www.capurro.de/wm-afta.html
Year
2003
Abstract
"Ich bestreite, dass wir wissen, ob wir etwas wissen oder nicht wissen; noch nicht einmal das wissen wir oder wissen es nicht; noch überhaupt, ob etwas ist oder nichts ist." So lautet die gegenüber dem Sokratischen Nicht-Wissen gesteigerte Skepsis des Metrodor von Chios, eines Schülers des Demokrit, in einem von Cicero tradierten Zitat (Diels/Kranz 1956, B1). Managen läßt sich nur, was ist und wovon wir ein Wissen haben können. Also läßt sich Wissen nicht managen. Skeptisches Wissensmanagement - ein Oxymoron? Demgegenüber steht unsere heutige gewaltige Wissens- und Informationsindustrie und die durch sie mitverursachte dritte industrielle Revolution. Die Industriegesellschaft ist zu einer Wissensindustriegesellschaft geworden. Es steht also nicht nur fest, dass wir wissen, sondern, dass wir viel wissen und wissen können. Die Frage ist nur, wie wir das Wissen und das Wissenkönnen nutzen. Der Skeptiker hat kein Kriterium um wahre von falschen Meinungen zu unterscheiden. Er enthält sich deshalb des Urteils und erreicht damit die innere Ruhe (ataraxia). Er beherrscht, so Friedo Ricken, "die Kunst, 'Erscheinungen' (phainomena) und 'Gedanken' (noumena) einander entgegenzusetzen. Er ist imstande, zu jeder Wahrnehmung eine andere zu finden, die mit der ersten nicht vereinbar ist." (Ricken 1994, 105). Paradoxerweise können wir sagen, dass der Skeptiker ein Manager des Nicht-Wissens ist. Sein Ziel ist, wie schon bei Sokrates, therapeutisch: Er will nämlich vom vorschnellen Urteil sowie vom Dünkel (oiesis) heilen und dafür letztlich, im Unterschied zur sokratischen Heilkunst, den Patienten von der Wahrheitssuche befreien (Ricken 1994, 106-107). Paradox ist auch, dass der Skeptiker zwar den Dogmatiker, der nach sicherer Erkenntnis (episteme) sucht, bekämpft, aber als Ziel seiner Lebenstechnik eine Lebensform anstrebt, bei der der Wert der 'inneren Ruhe' feststeht. Dafür muß er die Wahrheitssuche und die Suche nach Werturteilen aufgeben. Dogmatiker und Skeptiker haben aber etwas gemeinsam, sie kritisieren die Einstellung der bloßen Meinung (doxa). Skeptisches Denken, so Long, "findet sich überall da, wo die Kluft zwischen göttlichem und menschlichem Verstand betont wird." (Long 1995, Sp. 940) Der Skeptiker radikalisiert die Frage des Vertrauens in göttliches Wissen, indem er seine Skepsis auf das menschliche Wissen, sei es im Alltag (doxa) oder in der Wissenschaft (episteme), ausdehnt. Aus der Sicht des Skeptikers ist Wissensmanagement eine Technik, die etwas vorgibt, was sie nicht leisten kann. Ricken stellt das Denken von Peirce, Wittgenstein und Heidegger in die skeptische Tradition, sofern sie nämlich fundamentalistische Ansprüche der mit Descartes einsetzenden neuzeitlichen Philosophie in Frage stellen. Skeptische Argumentationsfiguren, wie die fünf Tropen des Agrippa (ca. 1. Jh. v.Chr.) - der Dissens (diaphonia), der unendliche Regreß, die Relativität des Urteilenden, die Setzung einer Hypothese und der Zirkelschluß -, finden sich teilweise heute wieder zum Beispiel in der Kritik des naiven Realismus durch das 'Münchhausen-Trilemma' eines Hans Albert (Ricken 1994, 161). Die antike Philosophie wiederum reagierte auf den Skeptizismus mit unterschiedlichen Strategien. Dazu gehören zum Beispiel die Platonische Kritik des sensualistischen Seinsbegriffs und die aristotelische Differenzierung der Wissensarten. Im Folgenden soll exemplarisch gezeigt werden, wie in der gegenwärtigen betriebswirtschaftlichen Diskussion um das Wissensmanagement klassische Fragen und Argumentationsfiguren aus den skeptischen und kritischen Traditionen der Hermeneutik und der Wissenschaftstheorie sowie aus der aristotelischen Wissenstypologie zum Ausdruck kommen.
Content
Vortrag an der Akademie für Technikfolgenabschätzung am 23.1.2001 sowie bei der 4. Tagung "Wirtschaftsethische Fragen der E-Economy" / Ausschuss für Wirtschaftsethik der Allgemeinen Gesellschaft für Philosophie, 15.-17. November 2001, Stuttgart. Erscheint in: Peter Fischer, Christoph Hubig, Peter Koslowski (Hrsg.): Wirtschaftsethische Fragen der E-Economy. Heidelberg: Physica Verlag 2003, S. 67-85.
Theme
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  4. Roos, M.; Hummert, G.; Kustos, A.: Wissensmanagement in Bibliotheken: "learning library" : Testbetrieb der Lernumgebung APOSDLE in der Abteilung Information der UB Hagen (2011) 0.31
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  5. Schmidt, A.: Endo-Management : Wissenslenkung in Cyber-Ökonomien (1999) 0.28
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