Document (#32799)

Author
Keen, A.
Title
¬The cult of the amateur : how today's internet is killing our culture
Imprint
New York : Doubleday/Currency
Year
2007
Pages
228 S
Isbn
0-385-52080-5
Series
A currency book
Abstract
Keen's relentless "polemic" is on target about how a sea of amateur content threatens to swamp the most vital information and how blogs often reinforce one's own views rather than expand horizons. But his jeremiad about the death of "our cultural standards and moral values" heads swiftly downhill. Keen became somewhat notorious for a 2006 Weekly Standard essay equating Web 2.0 with Marxism; like Karl Marx, he offers a convincing overall critique but runs into trouble with the details. Readers will nod in recognition at Keen's general arguments - sure, the Web is full of "user-generated nonsense"! - but many will frown at his specific examples, which pretty uniformly miss the point. It's simply not a given, as Keen assumes, that Britannica is superior to Wikipedia, or that record-store clerks offer sounder advice than online friends with similar musical tastes, or that YouTube contains only "one or two blogs or songs or videos with real value." And Keen's fears that genuine talent will go unnourished are overstated: writers penned novels before there were publishers and copyright law; bands recorded songs before they had major-label deals. In its last third, the book runs off the rails completely, blaming Web 2.0 for online poker, child pornography, identity theft and betraying "Judeo-Christian ethics."
Content
The great seduction -- The noble amateur -- Truth and lies -- The day the music died, side A -- The day the music died, side B -- Moral disorder -- 1984, version 2.0 -- Solutions.
Footnote
Andrew Keen is ein englisch-amerikanischer Schriftsteller, Absolvent der Universitäten von London, Berkeley y Sarajevo, Professor an den Universitäten von Tufts, Northeastern und Massachusetts und Gründer des Online-Unternehmens Audiocafe, wer gegenwärtig über die Massenmedien schreibt. Dieses Buch, veröffentlicht in USA in Juni 2007, kursierte schon zwischen den Teilnehmern der Konferenz des TED (Technology Entertainment Design) in Monterrey und es ist eine unerbittliche Kritik des Web 2.0. Ein Artikel in der Weekly Standard ging voraus.. Das Web 2.0 ist nicht so sehr eine Aktualisierung des Internets aus technischer Sicht sondern ein Kolloquialismus, das von O'Reilly Media, ein Internet Kommunikationsunternehmen, während eines der unternehmensinternen Konferenzzyklen geschaffen wurde. Es bezieht sich vor allem auf die Art, in der das Internet benutzt wird. Web 2.0 bezieht sich darüber hinaus auf die Methoden, die die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Benutzern nachdrücklich betonen und den Besucher oder Kunden einer Seite in Mitverfasser/Co-autor transformieren. Beispiele von Web 2.0 können sein: die Rezensionen in Amazon, die online-offene Enzyklopädie Wikipedia, blogs mit Beteiligung der Leser, Verlage wie blurb.com, welche für jeden Autor die Veröffentlichung seines Buches ermöglichen, u.a. Das Web 2.0 erlaubt einerseits eine größere Interaktivität zwischen Schöpfern und Konsumenten der Kultur- Online, anderseits hat die intellektuelle Piraterie stimuliert. Für den Autor ist es klar, dass genauso wichtig die Mitbestimmung für die politischen Demokratie ist, ist in der Welt der Wissenschaft das, was die Verfechter des Web 2.0 "Diktatur der Experten" nennen. Hundert Wikipedia Mitarbeiter werden nie einen authentischen Techniker, Wissenschaftler oder Historiker ersetzen können. Die Amateurs Blogs können sogar die Texte von Journalisten ersetzen, fehlt es ihnen jedoch die Seriosität dieser. An der einen Seite, stehen die Journalisten, die reisen, befragen, untersuchen, erforschen. An der anderen stehen viel zu oft Leute, die nicht verifizierte Information aus sekundären Quellen entnehmen und veröffentlichen. Es ist nicht nur, dass sie an Seriosität mangeln, sondern auch an Verantwortung. Die anonyme Information kann auch falsch oder fehlerhaft sein, aber ist vor allem verantwortungslose Information, für die, die Verfasser selten zur Verantwortung gezogen werden, egal wie schädlich ihre Ergebnisse sind. Anders geschieht es mit der gedruckten Presse, weil sie rundweg reguliert ist.
Wenn Wikipedia und blogs nur Ergänzungen zur Kultur und zur Information wären, wäre dies nicht gravierend. Das Problem ist, dass sie Ihren Ersatz geworden sind. Darüber hinaus neben der Unerfahrenheit der Autoren steht auch die Anonymität, die ermöglicht, dass sich zwischen den Amateurs Dessinformanten, getarnten Publizisten (vor allem die Spezialisten in Enten und Desinformation, welche jetzt die ganze Welt direkt und glaubhafter erreichen können) zwischen schieben. Fügen wir diesem apokalyptischen Panorama die intellektuelle Piraterie hinzu, werden wir eine Welt haben, in der die Schöpfer von den Nachahmern verdrängt werden. Dies annulliert die Motivation für die Schöpfung des Neuen. Der Autor gibt uns einige Beispiele, wie die Entlassungen bei Disney Productions. Eine große nordamerikanische Fernsehkette hat teuere Serien in Prime Time aus dem Programm entfernt, weil diese nicht mehr rentabel sind. Andere Beispiele u.a. sind die Verluste der traditionellen Presse und das Verschwinden von spezialisierten Platten- und Bücherläden egal wie gut sie waren. Andere Themen: Invasion der Privatsphäre durch das Internet, E-Mail Betrug, wachsende Kinderpornografie, das Plagiat bei Schülern sind auch in dem Buch enthalten. So sollten wir uns ein furchtbares Bild der von den neuen Technologien verursachten Probleme machen. Aber der Kern des Buches besteht in die Verteidigung des individuellen Schöpfertums und des Fachwissens. Beide sind nach Meinung des Autors die Hauptopfer des Web 2.0. Das Buch ist ein Pamphlet, was im Prinzip nicht Schlechtes bedeutet. Marx, Nietzsche, u..v.a. haben auch Pamphlete geschrieben und einige dieser Schriften haben bei der Gestaltung der modernen Welt beigetragen. Das Buch hat alle Merkmale des Pamphlets: ist kurz, kontrovers, aggressiv und einseitig. Daran liegen seine Kräfte und seine Schwäche. Der Text kann in einigen wenigen Stunden gelesen werden und schärft die Wahrnehmung des Leser vor scheinbar unschädlichen Praktiken: runterladen eines Liedes oder die Zusammenstellung einer Schulaufgabe. Weil er einseitig ist, der Autor absichtlich ignoriert, dass viele dieser Probleme unabhängig des Internets existieren, wie das Plagiat. Er unterdrückt auch Tatsachen, wie die Kontrollmechanismen von Wikipedia, die sie genau so vertrauensvoll wie die Encyclopaedia Britannica machen. Aber gerade weil das Buch einseitig ist, hilft der Autor dem Dialog zwischen den unterschiedlichen Formen, um das Internet zu sehen und zu nutzen. (Aus der Originalrezension in Spanisch von Juan Carlos Castillon, Barcelona, en el Blog Penultimos Dias)
Theme
Internet
LCSH
Internet / Social aspects
Internet / Economic aspects
Social change
Information society
Self / publishing
RSWK
Sozialer Wandel / Informationsgesellschaft / Internet (GBV)
Internet / World Wide Web 2.0 / Kultur / Wirtschaft (BSZ)
Internet / Informations-Gesellschaft / Sozialer Wandel (BVB)
BK
05.20 / Kommunikation und Gesellschaft
71.41 / Sozialer Wandel
DDC
303.48/33 / dc22
LCC
HM851.K44 2007

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  5. Lindsay J.: Policing the Internet? (1997) 0.07
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