Document (#33054)

Author
Toivonen, J.
Pirkola, A.
Keskustalo, H.
Visala, K.
Järvelin, K.
Title
Translating cross-lingual spelling variants using transformation rules
Source
Information processing and management. 41(2005) no.4, S.859-872
Year
2005
Abstract
Technical terms and proper names constitute a major problem in dictionary-based cross-language information retrieval (CLIR). However, technical terms and proper names in different languages often share the same Latin or Greek origin, being thus spelling variants of each other. In this paper we present a novel two-step fuzzy translation technique for cross-lingual spelling variants. In the first step, transformation rules are applied to source words to render them more similar to their target language equivalents. The rules are generated automatically using translation dictionaries as source data. In the second step, the intermediate forms obtained in the first step are translated into a target language using fuzzy matching. The effectiveness of the technique was evaluated empirically using five source languages and English as a target language. The two-step technique performed better, in some cases considerably better, than fuzzy matching alone. Even using the first step as such showed promising results.
Theme
Multilinguale Probleme

Similar documents (author)

  1. Pirkola, A.; Hedlund, T.; Keskustalo, H.; Järvelin, K.: Dictionary-based cross-language information retrieval : problems, methods, and research findings (2001) 4.91
    4.909558 = sum of:
      4.909558 = sum of:
        1.1116146 = weight(author_txt:järvelin in 4909) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.1116146 = score(doc=4909,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.44343027 = queryWeight, product of:
              8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            2.506853 = fieldWeight in 4909, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=4909)
        1.8243432 = weight(author_txt:pirkola in 4909) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.8243432 = score(doc=4909,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.6169646 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.1795529 = boost
              9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            2.956966 = fieldWeight in 4909, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=4909)
        1.9736 = weight(author_txt:keskustalo in 4909) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.9736 = score(doc=4909,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.65017253 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.2108815 = boost
              9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            3.035502 = fieldWeight in 4909, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=4909)
    
  2. Ferro, N.; Silvello, G.; Keskustalo, H.; Pirkola, A.; Järvelin, K.: ¬The twist measure for IR evaluation : taking user's effort into account (2016) 4.91
    4.909558 = sum of:
      4.909558 = sum of:
        1.1116146 = weight(author_txt:järvelin in 3772) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.1116146 = score(doc=3772,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.44343027 = queryWeight, product of:
              8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            2.506853 = fieldWeight in 3772, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=3772)
        1.8243432 = weight(author_txt:pirkola in 3772) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.8243432 = score(doc=3772,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.6169646 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.1795529 = boost
              9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            2.956966 = fieldWeight in 3772, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=3772)
        1.9736 = weight(author_txt:keskustalo in 3772) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.9736 = score(doc=3772,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.65017253 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.2108815 = boost
              9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
              0.05527726 = queryNorm
            3.035502 = fieldWeight in 3772, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
              0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=3772)
    
  3. Pirkola, A.; Järvelin, K.: Employing the resolution power of search keys (2001) 3.13
    3.1316886 = sum of:
      3.1316886 = product of:
        4.6975327 = sum of:
          1.7785833 = weight(author_txt:järvelin in 6908) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7785833 = score(doc=6908,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44343027 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              4.010965 = fieldWeight in 6908, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=6908)
          2.9189491 = weight(author_txt:pirkola in 6908) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.9189491 = score(doc=6908,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6169646 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1795529 = boost
                9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              4.7311454 = fieldWeight in 6908, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=6908)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  4. Lehtokangas, R.; Keskustalo, H.; Järvelin, K.: Experiments with transitive dictionary translation and pseudo-relevance feedback using graded relevance assessments (2008) 2.47
    2.4681716 = sum of:
      2.4681716 = product of:
        3.7022574 = sum of:
          1.3339374 = weight(author_txt:järvelin in 2529) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.3339374 = score(doc=2529,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44343027 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              3.0082235 = fieldWeight in 2529, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2529)
          2.36832 = weight(author_txt:keskustalo in 2529) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.36832 = score(doc=2529,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.65017253 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2108815 = boost
                9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              3.6426022 = fieldWeight in 2529, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.713606 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42596)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2529)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  5. Pirkola, A.; Puolamäki, D.; Järvelin, K.: Applying query structuring in cross-language retrieval (2003) 2.35
    2.3487663 = sum of:
      2.3487663 = product of:
        3.5231493 = sum of:
          1.3339374 = weight(author_txt:järvelin in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.3339374 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44343027 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              3.0082235 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.02193 = idf(docFreq=37, maxDocs=42596)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          2.1892118 = weight(author_txt:pirkola in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.1892118 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6169646 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1795529 = boost
                9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
                0.05527726 = queryNorm
              3.548359 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.462291 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=42596)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Bellaachia, A.; Amor-Tijani, G.: Proper nouns in English-Arabic cross language information retrieval (2008) 0.63
    0.62715924 = sum of:
      0.62715924 = product of:
        1.2060755 = sum of:
          0.09374357 = weight(abstract_txt:clir in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09374357 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12992606 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.72151476 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.030682744 = weight(abstract_txt:technical in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030682744 = score(doc=3552,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09795307 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2279365 = boost
                5.0118275 = idf(docFreq=770, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.31323922 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0118275 = idf(docFreq=770, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.059077837 = weight(abstract_txt:languages in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.059077837 = score(doc=3552,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.10511497 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2720352 = boost
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5620307 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.07660885 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07660885 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.14308625 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.484109 = boost
                6.057397 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5354033 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.057397 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.09648444 = weight(abstract_txt:proper in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09648444 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.166872 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6027235 = boost
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5781943 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.049025442 = weight(abstract_txt:source in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.049025442 = score(doc=3552,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15324984 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8811028 = boost
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.31990534 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.1277958 = weight(abstract_txt:technique in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1277958 = score(doc=3552,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.18285635 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0547903 = boost
                5.59109 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6988863 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.59109 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.05089189 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05089189 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13725273 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0556178 = boost
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.37078965 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.06536822 = weight(abstract_txt:cross in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06536822 = score(doc=3552,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1856508 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0704317 = boost
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.3521031 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.025673904 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025673904 = score(doc=3552,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11804924 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1314173 = boost
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.2174847 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.14800939 = weight(abstract_txt:target in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14800939 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.25407887 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4221263 = boost
                6.5906115 = idf(docFreq=158, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.58253324 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.5906115 = idf(docFreq=158, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.15427332 = weight(abstract_txt:variants in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15427332 = score(doc=3552,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.32908863 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7565694 = boost
                7.500633 = idf(docFreq=63, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.46878955 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.500633 = idf(docFreq=63, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
          0.22844008 = weight(abstract_txt:spelling in 3552) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22844008 = score(doc=3552,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.33933127 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7991388 = boost
                7.616464 = idf(docFreq=56, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6732067 = fieldWeight in 3552, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.616464 = idf(docFreq=56, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3552)
        0.52 = coord(13/25)
    
  2. Pirkola, A.; Puolamäki, D.; Järvelin, K.: Applying query structuring in cross-language retrieval (2003) 0.62
    0.6198814 = sum of:
      0.6198814 = product of:
        1.1920797 = sum of:
          0.12283251 = weight(abstract_txt:equivalents in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12283251 = score(doc=2254,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13407181 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.015829 = boost
                8.29222 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.9161695 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.29222 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.033824075 = weight(abstract_txt:better in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.033824075 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.090080865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1775602 = boost
                4.8062167 = idf(docFreq=946, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.3754857 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8062167 = idf(docFreq=946, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.042635754 = weight(abstract_txt:languages in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.042635754 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10511497 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2720352 = boost
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.40561068 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.086185955 = weight(abstract_txt:names in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.086185955 = score(doc=2254,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13338171 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4328971 = boost
                5.848375 = idf(docFreq=333, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.64616024 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.848375 = idf(docFreq=333, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.0677133 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0677133 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14308625 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.484109 = boost
                6.057397 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.47323412 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.057397 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.12398069 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12398069 = score(doc=2254,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14848328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5118393 = boost
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.83498085 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.03395959 = weight(abstract_txt:first in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03395959 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10339209 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5450984 = boost
                4.204217 = idf(docFreq=1728, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.32845443 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.204217 = idf(docFreq=1728, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.08528101 = weight(abstract_txt:proper in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08528101 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.166872 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6027235 = boost
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5110564 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.06361487 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06361487 = score(doc=2254,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13725273 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0556178 = boost
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.46348706 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.08171028 = weight(abstract_txt:cross in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08171028 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1856508 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0704317 = boost
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.4401289 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.05558563 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05558563 = score(doc=2254,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.11804924 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1314173 = boost
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.47086817 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.19284163 = weight(abstract_txt:variants in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19284163 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.32908863 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7565694 = boost
                7.500633 = idf(docFreq=63, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5859869 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.500633 = idf(docFreq=63, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
          0.20191441 = weight(abstract_txt:spelling in 2254) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20191441 = score(doc=2254,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.33933127 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7991388 = boost
                7.616464 = idf(docFreq=56, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.59503627 = fieldWeight in 2254, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.616464 = idf(docFreq=56, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2254)
        0.52 = coord(13/25)
    
  3. Li, Q.; Chen, Y.P.; Myaeng, S.-H.; Jin, Y.; Kang, B.-Y.: Concept unification of terms in different languages via web mining for Information Retrieval (2009) 0.27
    0.26675075 = sum of:
      0.26675075 = product of:
        0.7409743 = sum of:
          0.09374357 = weight(abstract_txt:clir in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09374357 = score(doc=216,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12992606 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.72151476 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.059077837 = weight(abstract_txt:languages in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.059077837 = score(doc=216,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.10511497 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2720352 = boost
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5620307 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.08098385 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08098385 = score(doc=216,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.14848328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5118393 = boost
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5454072 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.027167672 = weight(abstract_txt:first in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.027167672 = score(doc=216,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10339209 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5450984 = boost
                4.204217 = idf(docFreq=1728, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.26276356 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.204217 = idf(docFreq=1728, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.0682248 = weight(abstract_txt:proper in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0682248 = score(doc=216,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.166872 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6027235 = boost
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.40884513 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.18346202 = weight(abstract_txt:lingual in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18346202 = score(doc=216,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.25611955 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9855838 = boost
                8.104168 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.716314 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.104168 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.0638979 = weight(abstract_txt:technique in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0638979 = score(doc=216,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18285635 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0547903 = boost
                5.59109 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.34944314 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.59109 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.071972005 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.071972005 = score(doc=216,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.13725273 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0556178 = boost
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.52437574 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
          0.09244463 = weight(abstract_txt:cross in 216) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09244463 = score(doc=216,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1856508 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0704317 = boost
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.497949 = fieldWeight in 216, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=216)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Dadashkarimia, J.; Shakery, A.; Failia, H.; Zamani, H.: ¬An expectation-maximization algorithm for query translation based on pseudo-relevant documents (2017) 0.25
    0.24694414 = sum of:
      0.24694414 = product of:
        0.68595594 = sum of:
          0.082025625 = weight(abstract_txt:clir in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.082025625 = score(doc=4297,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12992606 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6313254 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.023676852 = weight(abstract_txt:better in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023676852 = score(doc=4297,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.090080865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1775602 = boost
                4.8062167 = idf(docFreq=946, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.26283997 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8062167 = idf(docFreq=946, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.029845027 = weight(abstract_txt:languages in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029845027 = score(doc=4297,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10511497 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2720352 = boost
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.28392747 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.191817 = idf(docFreq=643, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.1503186 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1503186 = score(doc=4297,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.14848328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5118393 = boost
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              1.0123605 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.07430024 = weight(abstract_txt:source in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07430024 = score(doc=4297,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.15324984 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8811028 = boost
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.48483074 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.0629755 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0629755 = score(doc=4297,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.13725273 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0556178 = boost
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.45882878 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.05719719 = weight(abstract_txt:cross in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05719719 = score(doc=4297,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1856508 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0704317 = boost
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.3080902 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.022464665 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022464665 = score(doc=4297,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11804924 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1314173 = boost
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.19029911 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4797552 = idf(docFreq=3567, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
          0.18315227 = weight(abstract_txt:target in 4297) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18315227 = score(doc=4297,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.25407887 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4221263 = boost
                6.5906115 = idf(docFreq=158, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.72084814 = fieldWeight in 4297, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.5906115 = idf(docFreq=158, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=4297)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  5. Wang, J.-H.; Teng, J.-W.; Lu, W.-H.; Chien, L.-F.: Exploiting the Web as the multilingual corpus for unknown query translation (2006) 0.23
    0.22990398 = sum of:
      0.22990398 = product of:
        0.71844995 = sum of:
          0.0868557 = weight(abstract_txt:equivalents in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0868557 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13407181 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.015829 = boost
                8.29222 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6478297 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.29222 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.03835343 = weight(abstract_txt:technical in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03835343 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09795307 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2279365 = boost
                5.0118275 = idf(docFreq=770, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.39154902 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0118275 = idf(docFreq=770, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.12398069 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12398069 = score(doc=51,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14848328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5118393 = boost
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.83498085 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.170578 = idf(docFreq=241, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.08528101 = weight(abstract_txt:proper in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08528101 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.166872 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6027235 = boost
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.5110564 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.541522 = idf(docFreq=166, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.061281804 = weight(abstract_txt:source in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.061281804 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15324984 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8811028 = boost
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.39988166 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1184855 = idf(docFreq=692, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.16215906 = weight(abstract_txt:lingual in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16215906 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25611955 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9855838 = boost
                8.104168 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6331381 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.104168 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.0449825 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0449825 = score(doc=51,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13725273 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0556178 = boost
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.32773483 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.195006 = idf(docFreq=1744, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
          0.11555579 = weight(abstract_txt:cross in 51) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11555579 = score(doc=51,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1856508 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0704317 = boost
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.015916444 = queryNorm
              0.6224363 = fieldWeight in 51, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.63365 = idf(docFreq=413, maxDocs=42596)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=51)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)