Document (#33216)

Author
Philipkoski, K.
Title
What's in a name? : the future of life
Source
http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/news/2007/05/linnaeus
Year
2007
Abstract
When marine biologist Katrin Linse recently won the honor of naming a new species, she turned to a centuries-old rulebook. Sorting through 3,000 crustacean samples pulled from deep water near Antarctica she noticed some that hadn't been described before. The creatures were seemingly related to other tiny shrimplike swimmers thriving on shelves beneath the largely unexplored Ross Sea. But some of their body segments were shorter than they should have been. After concluding this constituted a new species, the naming part was easy. Epimeria was required for the first name, or genus, already known to comprise some 30 similar species at the time. Free to choose almost anything for the second part, she settled on schiaparelli, after Dr. Stefano Schiaparelli, a biologist "who kindly shared his enthusiasm and knowledge on board" during the Antarctic expedition, Linse wrote in a paper published last week describing the find. When it comes to naming a brand-new life form, shouldn't the process be more, well, scientific? Most scientists say that 272 years after it was introduced, the naming system works just fine. Evolutionary theory and molecular biology have transformed our understanding of life. Computers and digital media have more recently upended longstanding theories of information management. But, over nearly three centuries, the classification system used to organize much of our biological knowledge has remained remarkably arbitrary and ancient: The so-called binomial system of genus and species that Linse and thousands of other biologists use today was first proposed by a Swedish biologist born 300 years ago Wednesday, Carolus Linnaeus.
Biological classification may seem like an esoteric problem better left to librarians than field researchers, but it is reaching unprecedented importance as discoveries swell the existing rolls of some 1.8 million known species, and prominent scientists such as E.O. Wilson throw their backing behind an ambitious project to make taxonomic data for all of life on Earth accessible online. Classification systems, meanwhile, have themselves become the subject of intensive study, thanks to the explosion in data-labeling and -sorting procedures allowed by digital media. Linnaeus, a devout Christian with no concept of evolution, today might barely recognize much of the system he spawned. But his approach was remarkably modern. He bridged religious and scientific conceptions of nature, ordering the world as was most convenient, rather than seeking to describe how it truly was. His goal was not to uncover the hidden connections between organisms, but simply to give labels to ensure biologists could agree on what they were talking about. "Linnaeus did a masterful job of creating a hierarchy by which we could communicate (about phylogeny)," said Craig Moritz, the director of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California at Berkeley. "That system has really stood the test of time."
Object
Linne_System

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