Document (#33463)

Author
Golub, K.
Hamon, T.
Ardö, A.
Title
Automated classification of textual documents based on a controlled vocabulary in engineering
Source
Knowledge organization. 34(2007) no.4, S.247-263
Year
2007
Abstract
Automated subject classification has been a challenging research issue for many years now, receiving particular attention in the past decade due to rapid increase of digital documents. The most frequent approach to automated classification is machine learning. It, however, requires training documents and performs well on new documents only if these are similar enough to the former. We explore a string-matching algorithm based on a controlled vocabulary, which does not require training documents - instead it reuses the intellectual work put into creating the controlled vocabulary. Terms from the Engineering Information thesaurus and classification scheme were matched against title and abstract of engineering papers from the Compendex database. Simple string-matching was enhanced by several methods such as term weighting schemes and cut-offs, exclusion of certain terms, and en- richment of the controlled vocabulary with automatically extracted terms. The best results are 76% recall when the controlled vocabulary is enriched with new terms, and 79% precision when certain terms are excluded. Precision of individual classes is up to 98%. These results are comparable to state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms.
Theme
Automatisches Klassifizieren
Field
Ingenieurwissenschaften

Similar documents (author)

  1. Koch, T.; Golub, K.; Ardö, A.: Users browsing behaviour in a DDC-based Web service : a log analysis (2006) 4.76
    4.755004 = sum of:
      4.755004 = sum of:
        2.1404147 = weight(author_txt:golub in 4235) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.1404147 = score(doc=4235,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.6585518 = queryWeight, product of:
              8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
              0.07598244 = queryNorm
            3.2501843 = fieldWeight in 4235, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4235)
        2.6145892 = weight(author_txt:ardö in 4235) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.6145892 = score(doc=4235,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.75253546 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.0689774 = boost
              9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
              0.07598244 = queryNorm
            3.4743733 = fieldWeight in 4235, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4235)
    
  2. Golub, K.: Automated subject classification of textual web documents (2006) 1.78
    1.783679 = sum of:
      1.783679 = product of:
        3.567358 = sum of:
          3.567358 = weight(author_txt:golub in 601) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.567358 = score(doc=601,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6585518 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07598244 = queryNorm
              5.416974 = fieldWeight in 601, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=601)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Golub, K.: Automated subject classification of textual Web pages, based on a controlled vocabulary : challenges and recommendations (2006) 1.78
    1.783679 = sum of:
      1.783679 = product of:
        3.567358 = sum of:
          3.567358 = weight(author_txt:golub in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.567358 = score(doc=898,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6585518 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07598244 = queryNorm
              5.416974 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Golub, K.: Subject access to information : an interdisciplinary approach (2015) 1.78
    1.783679 = sum of:
      1.783679 = product of:
        3.567358 = sum of:
          3.567358 = weight(author_txt:golub in 2135) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.567358 = score(doc=2135,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6585518 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07598244 = queryNorm
              5.416974 = fieldWeight in 2135, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=2135)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Golub, K.: Automated subject classification of textual documents in the context of Web-based hierarchical browsing (2011) 1.78
    1.783679 = sum of:
      1.783679 = product of:
        3.567358 = sum of:
          3.567358 = weight(author_txt:golub in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.567358 = score(doc=1559,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6585518 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07598244 = queryNorm
              5.416974 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.667158 = idf(docFreq=19, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Golub, K.: Automated subject classification of textual documents in the context of Web-based hierarchical browsing (2011) 0.51
    0.51263994 = sum of:
      0.51263994 = product of:
        1.1650908 = sum of:
          0.013827345 = weight(abstract_txt:results in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013827345 = score(doc=1559,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.063080214 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.004831 = boost
                3.5072412 = idf(docFreq=3482, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.21920258 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.5072412 = idf(docFreq=3482, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.050362796 = weight(abstract_txt:learning in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.050362796 = score(doc=1559,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.11852151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3773521 = boost
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.42492536 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.048764896 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.048764896 = score(doc=1559,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14615224 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5294988 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.33365822 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.10091152 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10091152 = score(doc=1559,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.18837263 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7364221 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.53570163 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.16659288 = weight(abstract_txt:string in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16659288 = score(doc=1559,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.26312467 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0522354 = boost
                7.1630807 = idf(docFreq=89, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.6331329 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.1630807 = idf(docFreq=89, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.041023858 = weight(abstract_txt:classification in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041023858 = score(doc=1559,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16409737 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2919872 = boost
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.24999705 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.14782998 = weight(abstract_txt:automated in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14782998 = score(doc=1559,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.24297725 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4153209 = boost
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.6084108 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.07583536 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07583536 = score(doc=1559,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.21132545 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.907986 = boost
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.35885578 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.07898226 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07898226 = score(doc=1559,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.2171319 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9476657 = boost
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.36375242 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.21374841 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21374841 = score(doc=1559,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.36836255 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.8393185 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.5802664 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
          0.22721148 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 1559) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.22721148 = score(doc=1559,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.38367224 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.9182901 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.592202 = fieldWeight in 1559, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1559)
        0.44 = coord(11/25)
    
  2. Golub, K.: Automated subject classification of textual Web pages, based on a controlled vocabulary : challenges and recommendations (2006) 0.28
    0.2779138 = sum of:
      0.2779138 = product of:
        0.99254936 = sum of:
          0.08919403 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08919403 = score(doc=898,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18837263 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7364221 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.4734978 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.2082411 = weight(abstract_txt:string in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2082411 = score(doc=898,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.26312467 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0522354 = boost
                7.1630807 = idf(docFreq=89, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.7914161 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.1630807 = idf(docFreq=89, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.088819265 = weight(abstract_txt:classification in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.088819265 = score(doc=898,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.16409737 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2919872 = boost
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.5412595 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.10668709 = weight(abstract_txt:automated in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10668709 = score(doc=898,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.24297725 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4153209 = boost
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.43908265 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.18137245 = weight(abstract_txt:engineering in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18137245 = score(doc=898,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.27470207 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5681655 = boost
                5.975915 = idf(docFreq=294, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.6602515 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.975915 = idf(docFreq=294, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.15425962 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15425962 = score(doc=898,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.36836255 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.8393185 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.4187712 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
          0.16397576 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 898) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16397576 = score(doc=898,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.38367224 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.9182901 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.427385 = fieldWeight in 898, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=898)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  3. Hubain, R.; Wilde, M. De; Hooland, S. van: Automated SKOS vocabulary design for the biopharmaceutical industry (2016) 0.22
    0.21986555 = sum of:
      0.21986555 = product of:
        0.91610646 = sum of:
          0.053417813 = weight(abstract_txt:learning in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.053417813 = score(doc=1133,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11852151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3773521 = boost
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.45070142 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
          0.07314735 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07314735 = score(doc=1133,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14615224 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5294988 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.5004873 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
          0.181054 = weight(abstract_txt:automated in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.181054 = score(doc=1133,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.24297725 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4153209 = boost
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.74514794 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.620258 = idf(docFreq=420, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
          0.14509967 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14509967 = score(doc=1133,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.2171319 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9476657 = boost
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.66825587 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
          0.18511155 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18511155 = score(doc=1133,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.36836255 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.8393185 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.50252545 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
          0.2782761 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 1133) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2782761 = score(doc=1133,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.38367224 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.9182901 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.7252964 = fieldWeight in 1133, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1133)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  4. Bhatia, S.K.; Deogun, J.S.; Raghavan, V.V.: Conceptual query formulation and retrieval (1995) 0.19
    0.19345905 = sum of:
      0.19345905 = product of:
        0.60455954 = sum of:
          0.035611875 = weight(abstract_txt:learning in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035611875 = score(doc=4608,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11852151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3773521 = boost
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.3004676 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.06121392 = weight(abstract_txt:training in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06121392 = score(doc=4608,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13498662 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4699135 = boost
                5.130556 = idf(docFreq=686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.45348138 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.130556 = idf(docFreq=686, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.048764896 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.048764896 = score(doc=4608,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14615224 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5294988 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.33365822 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.05380806 = weight(abstract_txt:precision in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05380806 = score(doc=4608,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1560626 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5805048 = boost
                5.5165615 = idf(docFreq=466, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.3447851 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5165615 = idf(docFreq=466, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.041023858 = weight(abstract_txt:classification in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041023858 = score(doc=4608,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16409737 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2919872 = boost
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.24999705 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9999528 = idf(docFreq=2127, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.092878975 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.092878975 = score(doc=4608,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.21132545 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.907986 = boost
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.4395068 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.09673311 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09673311 = score(doc=4608,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.2171319 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9476657 = boost
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.44550392 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
          0.17452484 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 4608) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17452484 = score(doc=4608,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.36836255 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.8393185 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.47378552 = fieldWeight in 4608, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4608)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  5. Dumais, S.T.: Latent semantic analysis (2003) 0.18
    0.1842055 = sum of:
      0.1842055 = product of:
        0.5756422 = sum of:
          0.011621463 = weight(abstract_txt:when in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011621463 = score(doc=4463,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.089178704 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1947498 = boost
                4.1701303 = idf(docFreq=1794, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.13031657 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.1701303 = idf(docFreq=1794, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.017805938 = weight(abstract_txt:learning in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.017805938 = score(doc=4463,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11852151 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3773521 = boost
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.1502338 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.807482 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.024382448 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.024382448 = score(doc=4463,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14615224 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5294988 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.16682911 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.03567761 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03567761 = score(doc=4463,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18837263 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7364221 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.18939912 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.08892485 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08892485 = score(doc=4463,freq=11.0), product of:
              0.21132545 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.907986 = boost
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.42079574 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                3.3166249 = tf(freq=11.0), with freq of:
                  11.0 = termFreq=11.0
                4.05999 = idf(docFreq=2003, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.08830485 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08830485 = score(doc=4463,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.2171319 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9476657 = boost
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.4066876 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                4.115389 = idf(docFreq=1895, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.1234077 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1234077 = score(doc=4463,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.36836255 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.8393185 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.33501697 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
          0.1855174 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 4463) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1855174 = score(doc=4463,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.38367224 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.9182901 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.017899238 = queryNorm
              0.48353094 = fieldWeight in 4463, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.03125 = fieldNorm(doc=4463)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)