Document (#33583)

Author
Lochmann, D.
Title
Vom Wesen der Information : eine allgemeinverständliche Betrachtung über Information in der Gesellschaft, in der Natur und in der Informationstheorie
Imprint
Norderstedt : Books on Demand
Year
2004
Pages
363 S
Isbn
3-8334-1691-2
Abstract
Der Begriff Information ist seit etwa 50 Jahren zu einem Zauberwort geworden, das vielleicht vergleichbar ist mit dem Begriff "Computer". Diese Begriffsprägung hat ihre Ursache in der Entwicklung der menschlichen Gesellschaft, denn im persönlichen Leben und auch in der beruflichen Tätigkeit fühlt man oft instinktiv, dass man in bestimmten Situationen zusätzliches Wissen oder zusätzliche Kenntnisse, eben Information, benötigt. Aber was ist Information? Das Wort "Information" ist abgeleitet aus dem lateinischen Wort "informare", das die Bedeutung von "etwas formen, gestalten, darstellen", "jemanden durch Unterrichtung, Belehrung und Erläuterung bilden" hat. So ist Information in ihrer ursprünglichen Bedeutung etwas, was die Bildung und das Wissen beim Menschen erweitert. Das gilt auch noch heute, denn meist wird Information als Mitteilung von Tatbeständen und Sachverhalten über etwas, aber auch als Unterrichtung oder als Belehrung auf bestimmten Gebieten (z. B. durch ein Informationsbüro) verstanden. Wir sehen, dass der Begriff Information überwiegend auf die menschliche Kommunikation angewendet wird und zusammenhängt mit einer Vergrößerung des Wissens oder der Gewinnung zusätzlicher Kenntnisse und Vorstellungen. Dabei gibt es auch Wertmaßstäbe. Wir bezeichnen Nachrichten, die wir für wichtig halten, als "wertvolle Information", Nachrichten, die zum richtigen Zeitpunkt an uns gelangen, als "aktuelle Information" und solche Nachrichten, die wir anfangs als richtig betrachten und später als falsch erkennen, als "Fehlinformation".
Außer für die menschliche Kommunikation wird der Begriff Information auch verwendet für die Fülle der auf unsere Sinnesorgane einwirkenden Reize aus der Umwelt. Weiterhin sprechen wir von "Erbinformation", von "Informationsaustausch im Tierreich", von "Computerinformation" und auch von Information bei anderen technischen Systemen. Es entsteht die Frage, ob man in diesen Anwendungsfällen auch von Kenntnisgewinn sprechen kann. Denn, wenn die Anwendung des Begriffs Information in allen aufgezählten Sachgebieten gelten soll, dann muss es für den Begriff "Information" eine allgemein vergleichbare Eigenschaft geben. Diese allgemeine Eigenschaft kann erfolgeich mit einer Wirkung auf Grund von Information und insbesondere mit einer Entscheidung in Verbindung gebracht werden. Bei einer Entscheidung besteht immer das Erfordernis, eine Auswahl zwischen verschiedenen Verhaltensmöglichkeiten oder Auswahlobjekten zu treffen. Und dazu benötigt man eine Zielvorstellung (sonst ergibt sich eine Zufallsentscheidung) und Information. Aber diese Information ist immer nur für eine bestimmte Entscheidung relevant. Wir bezeichnen sie deshalb als relevante Information. Ich habe mich seit über 35 Jahren mit dem faszinierenden Wesen der Information befasst und sehr viele dazu erschienenen Bücher, wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichungen und getroffenen Äußerungen gesammelt und verarbeitet. Mit der Betrachtung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Information und Entscheidung glaube ich, den Ansatz eines einheitlichen Konzepts für Information gefunden zu haben. Das geläufige Verständnis des Begriffs Information in der menschlichen Kommunikation setzt immer voraus, dass sie aus Nachrichten besteht, die für den Empfänger eine Bedeutung haben. Nachrichten, die ein Empfänger nicht versteht, können für ihn keine Information sein und deshalb zu einer Entscheidung nichts beitragen.
Damit aber gerade besteht ein grundlegender Unterschied zur Definition der Information in der Informationstheorie, die eine Theorie der Nachrichtenübertragung ist. Hier gilt die Definition, abgeleitet aus der Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Nachricht, dass diese Nachricht um so mehr Information enthält, je seltener sie auftritt. Sie ist somit eine statistische Größe. Die Bedeutung dieser Information für einen Empfänger spielt in der Informationstheorie keine Rolle. Die Menge an dieser statistischen Information kann quantitativ bestimmt werden. Es gab daher viele Versuche, die Ergebnisse der Informationstheorie auch in anderen Wissensgebieten anzuwenden, insbesondere in der Linguistik, in der Kunst und in der Psychologie. Diese Bemühungen haben größtenteils nicht zum Erfolg geführt, da in den genannten Wissensgebieten Information von ihrer Bedeutung für den Empfänger nicht getrennt werden kann. Es wird hier aber anschaulich gezeigt, dass die Informationstheorie für die Nachrichtenübertragung sehr große Fortschritte gebracht und das Verständnis über das Wesen der Nachricht in bedeutendem Maße aufgehellt hat. Auf Grund der völlig anderen Betrachtungsweise der Information in der Informationstheorie gegenüber der Information in der menschlichen Kommunikation wird die Diskussion um den Begriff Information seit Jahrzehnten von einer beträchtlichen Widersprüchlichkeit begleitet. Noch heute findet man in der Literatur viele Spuren der bestehenden Begriffsverwirrung. Ich hoffe, dass ich mit diesem Buch einen kleinen Beitrag zur Diskussion über dieses unerschöpfliche Thema leisten kann, wenn auch befürchtet werden muss, dass ein Autor, der sich an dieses Thema heranwagt, sehr oft nur Schimpf und Schande erntet. Wir werden es erleben. Es hat mich aber der folgende Ausspruch von Albert Einstein immer wieder ermutigt: "Wer es unternimmt, auf dem Gebiet der Wahrheit und der Erkenntnis als Autorität aufzutreten, scheitert am Gelächter der Götter."
Theme
Information
RSWK
Information
BK
53.71 / Theoretische Nachrichtentechnik
05.20 / Kommunikation und Gesellschaft
RVK
AN 92550 (BVB)

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  4. Umstätter, W.: Leistungsgrenzen der Dokumentations-, Informations-, Begriffs- und Wissensorganisation (2001) 0.41
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  5. Giessen, H.W.: Ehrwürdig stille Informationen : Eine Interpretation der Phaidros-Passage unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der McLuhan'schen Unterscheidung in 'kühle' und 'heiße' Medien (2006) 0.38
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