Document (#34138)

Author
Sokal, A.
Title
Transgressing the boundaries : toward a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity
Source
Social text. 1996, nos. 46/47, S.217-252
Year
1996
Abstract
There are many natural scientists, and especially physicists, who continue to reject the notion that the disciplines concerned with social and cultural criticism can have anything to contribute, except perhaps peripherally, to their research. Still less are they receptive to the idea that the very foundations of their worldview must be revised or rebuilt in the light of such criticism. Rather, they cling to the dogma imposed by the long post-Enlightenment hegemony over the Western intellectual outlook, which can be summarized briefly as follows: that there exists an external world, whose properties are independent of any individual human being and indeed of humanity as a whole; that these properties are encoded in ``eternal'' physical laws; and that human beings can obtain reliable, albeit imperfect and tentative, knowledge of these laws by hewing to the ``objective'' procedures and epistemological strictures prescribed by the (so-called) scientific method. But deep conceptual shifts within twentieth-century science have undermined this Cartesian-Newtonian metaphysics; revisionist studies in the history and philosophy of science have cast further doubt on its credibility; and, most recently, feminist and poststructuralist critiques have demystified the substantive content of mainstream Western scientific practice, revealing the ideology of domination concealed behind the façade of ``objectivity''. It has thus become increasingly apparent that physical ``reality'', no less than social ``reality'', is at bottom a social and linguistic construct; that scientific ``knowledge", far from being objective, reflects and encodes the dominant ideologies and power relations of the culture that produced it; that the truth claims of science are inherently theory-laden and self-referential; and consequently, that the discourse of the scientific community, for all its undeniable value, cannot assert a privileged epistemological status with respect to counter-hegemonic narratives emanating from dissident or marginalized communities. These themes can be traced, despite some differences of emphasis, in Aronowitz's analysis of the cultural fabric that produced quantum mechanics; in Ross' discussion of oppositional discourses in post-quantum science; in Irigaray's and Hayles' exegeses of gender encoding in fluid mechanics; and in Harding's comprehensive critique of the gender ideology underlying the natural sciences in general and physics in particular.
Here my aim is to carry these deep analyses one step farther, by taking account of recent developments in quantum gravity: the emerging branch of physics in which Heisenberg's quantum mechanics and Einstein's general relativity are at once synthesized and superseded. In quantum gravity, as we shall see, the space-time manifold ceases to exist as an objective physical reality; geometry becomes relational and contextual; and the foundational conceptual categories of prior science -- among them, existence itself -- become problematized and relativized. This conceptual revolution, I will argue, has profound implications for the content of a future postmodern and liberatory science. My approach will be as follows: First I will review very briefly some of the philosophical and ideological issues raised by quantum mechanics and by classical general relativity. Next I will sketch the outlines of the emerging theory of quantum gravity, and discuss some of the conceptual issues it raises. Finally, I will comment on the cultural and political implications of these scientific developments. It should be emphasized that this article is of necessity tentative and preliminary; I do not pretend to answer all of the questions that I raise. My aim is, rather, to draw the attention of readers to these important developments in physical science, and to sketch as best I can their philosophical and political implications. I have endeavored here to keep mathematics to a bare minimum; but I have taken care to provide references where interested readers can find all requisite details.
Content
1996 reichte der amerikanische Physiker Alan Sokal einen Aufsatz mit dem Titel Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity (deutsch: Die Grenzen überschreiten: Auf dem Weg zu einer transformativen Hermeneutik der Quantengravitation) bei der amerikanischen, für ihre postmoderne Ausrichtung bekannten Zeitschrift für Cultural studies Social Text zur Veröffentlichung ein. Diese druckte ihn unbeanstandet mit anderen in einer Sondernummer ab. Kurz nach der Veröffentlichung bekannte Sokal in einer anderen Zeitschrift, Lingua Franca, dass es sich bei dem Aufsatz um eine Parodie handle. Er habe die zusammengesuchten Zitate verschiedener postmoderner Denker mit dem typischen Jargon dieser Denkrichtung zu einem Text montiert, dessen unsinniger Inhalt bei Beachtung wissenschaftlicher Standards, so der Vorwurf an die Herausgeber von Social Text, als solcher hätte erkannt werden müssen. Dieser Vorfall löste im akademischen Milieu und der Presse (der Fall kam immerhin bis auf die Titelseite der New York Times) eine öffentliche Diskussion aus, wie dieser Vorfall im Besonderen und die Seriosität der postmodernen Philosophie im Allgemeinen zu bewerten sei. Sokal und Vertreter des kritisierten Personenkreises führten die Diskussion in weiteren Zeitschriftenartikeln fort und verteidigten ihre Standpunkte. 1997 veröffentlichte Sokal zusammen mit seinem belgischen Kollegen Jean Bricmont dazu ein Buch mit dem Titel Impostures Intellectuelles (übersetzt: Intellektuelle Hochstapeleien, deutscher Titel: Eleganter Unsinn), in dem er seine Thesen erklärt und an Beispielen von Texten bedeutender postmoderner französischer Philosophen erläutert (namentlich Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze/Félix Guattari, Luce Irigaray, Julia Kristeva, Jacques Lacan, Bruno Latour und Paul Virilio und - obwohl kein Postmoderner, als historisches Beispiel - Henri Bergson). In diesem Buch gaben Sokal/Bricmont - neben der Verteidigung gegen den vermuteten Missbrauch der Wissenschaft - auch ein politisches Motiv für ihren Vorstoß an. Sie bekannten sich zur politischen Linken und vertraten die Meinung, dass die zunehmende Verbreitung der postmodernen Denkrichtung in der Linken deren Fähigkeit zu wirkungsvoller Gesellschaftskritik schwäche. (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sokal-Aff%C3%A4re)
Footnote
Vgl.: http://www.physics.nyu.edu/faculty/sokal/.
Vgl. auch die Generatoren unter: http://www.elsewhere.org/pomo/; http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/scigen/.

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