Document (#34793)

Author
Chun Wei Choo, C.W.
Title
Information use and early warning effectiveness : perspectives and prospects
Source
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.5, S.1071-1082
Year
2009
Abstract
This introductory article explores how the use of information affects the effectiveness of early warning systems. By effectiveness, we refer to the capacity of the system to detect and decide on the existence of a threat. There are two aspects to effectiveness: (a) being able to see the evidence that is indicative of a threat and (b) making the decision, based on the weight of the evidence, to warn that the threat exists. In early warning, information use is encumbered by cues that are fallible and equivocal. Cues that are true indicators of a threat are obscured in a cloud of events generated by chance. Moreover, policy makers face the difficult decision of whether to issue a warning based on the information received. Because the information is rarely complete or conclusive, such decisions have to consider the consequences of failing to warn or giving a false warning. We draw on sociocognitive theories of perception and judgment to analyze these two aspects of early warning: detection accuracy (How well does perception correspond to reality?) and decision sensitivity (How much evidence is needed to activate warning?) Using cognitive continuum theory, we examine how detection accuracy depends on the fit between the information needs profile of the threat and the information use environment of the warning system. Applying signal detection theory, we investigate how decision sensitivity depends on the assessment and balancing of the risks of misses and false alarms inherent in all early warning decision making.

Similar documents (author)

  1. Choo, C.W.: Information management for the intelligent organization : the art of scanning the environment (1995) 1.91
    1.9138994 = sum of:
      1.9138994 = product of:
        3.8277988 = sum of:
          3.8277988 = weight(author_txt:choo in 1059) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.8277988 = score(doc=1059,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6610341 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07134748 = queryNorm
              5.790622 = fieldWeight in 1059, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1059)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  2. Choo, C.W.: Perspectives on managing knowledge in organizations (2003) 1.91
    1.9138994 = sum of:
      1.9138994 = product of:
        3.8277988 = sum of:
          3.8277988 = weight(author_txt:choo in 520) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.8277988 = score(doc=520,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6610341 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07134748 = queryNorm
              5.790622 = fieldWeight in 520, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=520)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Chun, D.M.; Plass, J.-L.: Project CyberBuch : a hypermedia approach to computer-assisted language learning (1995) 1.62
    1.6202508 = sum of:
      1.6202508 = product of:
        3.2405016 = sum of:
          3.2405016 = weight(author_txt:chun in 2332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2405016 = score(doc=2332,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.75035584 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.065422 = boost
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07134748 = queryNorm
              4.3186197 = fieldWeight in 2332, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.4375 = fieldNorm(doc=2332)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Kwasnik, B.H.; Chun, Y.-L.: Translation of classifications : issues and solutions as exemplified in the Korean Decimal Classification (2004) 1.62
    1.6202508 = sum of:
      1.6202508 = product of:
        3.2405016 = sum of:
          3.2405016 = weight(author_txt:chun in 3653) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2405016 = score(doc=3653,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.75035584 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.065422 = boost
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07134748 = queryNorm
              4.3186197 = fieldWeight in 3653, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.4375 = fieldNorm(doc=3653)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Cyr, S.; Choo, C.W.: ¬The individual and social dynamics of knowledge sharing : an exploratory study (2010) 1.53
    1.5311195 = sum of:
      1.5311195 = product of:
        3.062239 = sum of:
          3.062239 = weight(author_txt:choo in 620) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.062239 = score(doc=620,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6610341 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.07134748 = queryNorm
              4.632498 = fieldWeight in 620, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=620)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Choo, C.W.; Nadarajah, I.: Early warning information seeking in the 2009 Victorian Bushfires (2014) 0.22
    0.2211 = sum of:
      0.2211 = product of:
        1.1055 = sum of:
          0.008471743 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 3183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.008471743 = score(doc=3183,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.025314197 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1729348 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.33466372 = fieldWeight in 3183, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3183)
          0.01833237 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 3183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01833237 = score(doc=3183,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.045620993 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0830188 = boost
                2.430104 = idf(docFreq=10226, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.40184066 = fieldWeight in 3183, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                2.430104 = idf(docFreq=10226, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3183)
          0.03697779 = weight(abstract_txt:effectiveness in 3183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03697779 = score(doc=3183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11561112 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5066378 = boost
                5.117541 = idf(docFreq=695, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.3198463 = fieldWeight in 3183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.117541 = idf(docFreq=695, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3183)
          0.10459316 = weight(abstract_txt:early in 3183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10459316 = score(doc=3183,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.17270467 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.4253016 = boost
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.6056186 = fieldWeight in 3183, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3183)
          0.9371249 = weight(abstract_txt:warning in 3183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.9371249 = score(doc=3183,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.7643779 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.668011 = boost
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              1.2259969 = fieldWeight in 3183, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3183)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  2. Tang, X.-B.; Liu, G.-C.; Yang, J.; Wei, W.: Knowledge-based financial statement fraud detection system : based on an ontology and a decision tree (2018) 0.18
    0.17919841 = sum of:
      0.17919841 = product of:
        0.89599204 = sum of:
          0.022148604 = weight(abstract_txt:making in 307) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022148604 = score(doc=307,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.056189246 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2356725 = boost
                5.0454874 = idf(docFreq=747, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.3941787 = fieldWeight in 307, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0454874 = idf(docFreq=747, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=307)
          0.16457857 = weight(abstract_txt:detection in 307) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16457857 = score(doc=307,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.15429373 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.507821 = boost
                6.8266087 = idf(docFreq=125, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              1.0666575 = fieldWeight in 307, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.8266087 = idf(docFreq=125, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=307)
          0.075483605 = weight(abstract_txt:early in 307) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.075483605 = score(doc=307,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17270467 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.4253016 = boost
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.43706757 = fieldWeight in 307, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=307)
          0.10991251 = weight(abstract_txt:decision in 307) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10991251 = score(doc=307,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.17609906 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.458799 = boost
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.6241516 = fieldWeight in 307, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=307)
          0.52386874 = weight(abstract_txt:warning in 307) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.52386874 = score(doc=307,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7643779 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.668011 = boost
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.68535304 = fieldWeight in 307, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=307)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  3. Borwein, J.; Stanway, T.: Knowledge and community in mathematics (2005) 0.10
    0.10454026 = sum of:
      0.10454026 = product of:
        0.43558443 = sum of:
          0.009920371 = weight(abstract_txt:theory in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.009920371 = score(doc=4663,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04623882 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1209342 = boost
                4.576989 = idf(docFreq=1194, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.21454637 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.576989 = idf(docFreq=1194, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
          0.011259584 = weight(abstract_txt:aspects in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011259584 = score(doc=4663,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.05031178 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1692615 = boost
                4.774318 = idf(docFreq=980, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.22379616 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.774318 = idf(docFreq=980, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
          0.008037001 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.008037001 = score(doc=4663,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.025314197 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1729348 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.31748986 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
          0.04675604 = weight(abstract_txt:false in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04675604 = score(doc=4663,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12998103 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8793893 = boost
                7.6739063 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.35971436 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.6739063 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
          0.045290165 = weight(abstract_txt:early in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.045290165 = score(doc=4663,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17270467 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.4253016 = boost
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.26224053 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
          0.31432125 = weight(abstract_txt:warning in 4663) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.31432125 = score(doc=4663,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7643779 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.668011 = boost
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.41121185 = fieldWeight in 4663, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=4663)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  4. Thelwall, M.; Prabowo, R.: Identifying and characterizing public science-related fears from RSS feeds (2007) 0.10
    0.10393902 = sum of:
      0.10393902 = product of:
        0.64961886 = sum of:
          0.00820273 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2138) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.00820273 = score(doc=2138,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.025314197 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1729348 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.32403675 = fieldWeight in 2138, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2138)
          0.042063773 = weight(abstract_txt:evidence in 2138) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.042063773 = score(doc=2138,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09864117 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0051715 = boost
                5.4583325 = idf(docFreq=494, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.42643222 = fieldWeight in 2138, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.4583325 = idf(docFreq=494, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2138)
          0.075483605 = weight(abstract_txt:early in 2138) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.075483605 = score(doc=2138,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17270467 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.4253016 = boost
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.43706757 = fieldWeight in 2138, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.594465 = idf(docFreq=431, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2138)
          0.52386874 = weight(abstract_txt:warning in 2138) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.52386874 = score(doc=2138,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7643779 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.668011 = boost
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.68535304 = fieldWeight in 2138, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=2138)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  5. Lyle, P.: Intervention with suicidal behavior (1994) 0.10
    0.10315503 = sum of:
      0.10315503 = product of:
        0.8596253 = sum of:
          0.0075773573 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 4080) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0075773573 = score(doc=4080,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.025314197 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1729348 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.29933232 = fieldWeight in 4080, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4080)
          0.01385797 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 4080) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01385797 = score(doc=4080,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.045620993 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0830188 = boost
                2.430104 = idf(docFreq=10226, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              0.303763 = fieldWeight in 4080, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.430104 = idf(docFreq=10226, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4080)
          0.83818996 = weight(abstract_txt:warning in 4080) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.83818996 = score(doc=4080,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7643779 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.668011 = boost
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.00901253 = queryNorm
              1.0965649 = fieldWeight in 4080, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.772519 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4080)
        0.12 = coord(3/25)