Document (#35039)

Author
Breidbach, O.
Title
Neue Wissensordnungen : wie aus Informationen und Nachrichten kulturelles Wissen entsteht
Imprint
Frankfurt : Suhrkamp
Year
2008
Pages
181 S
Isbn
978-3-518-26010-4
Series
Edition Unseld ; 10
Abstract
Anstelle von materiellen Dingen wird heute in unserer Gesellschaft vorwiegend Wissen produziert. Kultur als der Zusammenhang aller möglichen Interaktionen in einer menschlichen Gesellschaft fixiert und transformiert das historisch erwachsene Wissen, in dem sich diese Kultur etabliert. Wissen ist dabei auch nicht einfach die Summe der einzelnen Köpfe dieser Kultur, da diese ihr Wissen ja immer erst im Zusammenhang der Kultur, in der sie agieren, gewinnen und fixieren können. Was sind dann aber die Kriterien, an denen Wissen und Information zu bemessen sind, und inwieweit sind Wissen und Information dabei dann überhaupt voneinander abzugrenzen? Informationen sind zunächst einfach nur Mitteilungen oder Nachrichten. Solche Informationen sind, suche ich sie zu verwenden, dann aber auch zu bewerten, also auf den Gesamtkontext der schon verfügbaren Informationen zu beziehen. Diese Informationen werden demnach einander zugeordnet. Erst in dieser Ordnung entsteht Wissen. Schließlich werden in der Strukturierung der Informationen die Nachrichten zu den Teilen eines Ganzen, in dem sich ein Bild formiert, was mehr ist als die Summe seiner Teile. Der Autor untersucht die Bezugsrahmen, in denen Wissen entsteht. Dabei entdeckt er eine Art übergeordnete Instanz, die einzelne Daten zu bewerten erlaubt. Der Text berührt sowohl alte philosophische Traditionen wie auch - ausgehend von neurobiologischen Befunden - die mathematisch-technischen Funktionen einer modernen Wissenschaftskultur.
Footnote
Rez. in: BuB 61(2009) H.4, S.281-282 (J. Eberhardt): "Die Bücher der im letzten Jahr gestarteten »Edition UnseId« sind dünn und preisgünstig, sie zielen damit auf ein größeres Publikum. Anspruchsvoll streben die ersten Bände der Edition danach, den Lesern die Welt zu erklären, oder kantischer noch, die Bedingungen einer solchen Welterklärung zu diskutieren. In diese Kategorie fällt auch der Band von Olaf Breidbach über die »Neuen Wissensordnungen«, der eben nicht bestimmtes Wissen vermitteln möchte, sondern das Wissen für sich als kulturelles und historisches Phänomen in den Blick nimmt. Das lässt eigentlich - für Bibliothekare als Arbeiter an oder in der Wissensordnung zumal - interessante Lektüre erwarten. Doch dürfte es auch außerhalb unseres Berufsstandes nicht allzu viele Leser geben, die Honig aus dem Büchlein saugen können, weil der Jenaer Professor für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften mehr Mühe auf die Ausbreitung seines reichen Materials denn auf seine Aufbereitung verwandt hat. Das Buch wird regiert von zwei Grundgedanken, die Breidbach verschiedentlich wiederholt. Der erste steckt auch im Titel: »Information« und »Wissen« sind nicht dasselbe, sondern Wissen entsteht erst aus Information, und zwar durch Interpretation und Reflexion. Wissen ist »interpretierte Information« (Seite 12, 168 und weitere). Der zweite betrifft das Wesen der Interpretation: Eine neue Information kann nur interpretiert werden, indem man sie in Beziehung setzt zu dem, was schon gewusst wird, also indem man sie in das »Netz« seines Wissens einbezieht - und dies führt notwendig dazu, dass das Netz sich verändert. Wissensordnung muss man dynamisch verstehen, nicht statisch! Das Buch versucht zu erklären, was diese beiden Gedanken bedeuten und welche Folgen sie haben dafür, wie Wissensordnung zu modellieren wäre. Dem ersten Gedanken nähert man sich vielleicht am einfachsten über einen Vergleich mit der platonischen Wissensauffassung, die als Diskussionsfolie auch noch die zeitgenössische Erkenntnistheorie regiert. . . .
... ist Interessierten eher David Weinbergers weniger anspruchsvolle, dafür aber ansprechendere und mehr an der bibliothekarischen Praxis orientierte, gut gelaunte kleine Kultur- und Handlungsgeschichte der Wissensordnung »Everything is miscellaneous« zu empfehlen (siehe auch die Rezension von Jürgen Plieninger in BuB Heft 10/2007, Seite 750/751). Das Buch liegt mittlerweile in deutscher Übersetzung (»Das Ende der Schublade«, Hanser 2008) vor."
Field
Kommunikationswissenschaften
LCSH
Knowledge, Sociology of
Knowledge, Theory of
Information society
RSWK
Informationsgesellschaft / Wissensorganisation
Wissen / Kultur / Informationsverarbeitung
BK
02.00 / Wissenschaft und Kultur allgemein: Allgemeines
02.02 / Wissenschaftstheorie
DDC
001.01 / DDC22ger
LCC
HM651 .B74 2008
RVK
CC 8400 Philosophie / Systematische Philosophie / Medienphilosphie
CC 4400 Philosophie / Systematische Philosophie / Erkenntnistheorie / Abhandlungen zur Erkenntnistheorie
CC 3200 Philosophie / Systematische Philosophie / Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie / Abhandlungen zur allgemeinen Wissenschaftstheorie
NU 1500 Geschichte / Geschichte der Wissenschaften und des Unterrichtswesens / Geschichte der Wissenschaften / Allgemeines
AK 26700 (BVB)
MR 7100 (BVB)

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  5. Palfrey, J.; Gasser, U.: Generation Internet : die Digital Natives: Wie sie leben - Was sie denken - Wie sie arbeiten (2008) 0.19
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