Document (#35207)

Author
Blumenberg, H.
Title
¬Die Lesbarkeit der Welt
Issue
2., durchges. Aufl.
Imprint
Frankfurt : Suhrkamp
Year
1983
Pages
415 S
Isbn
3-518-06741-9
Series
Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft; 592
Abstract
Was wollten wir wissen? könnte die Frage lauten, die sich in den zwei Jahrhunderten seit Kants »Kritik der reinen Vernunft« an die Stelle seiner Grundfrage geschoben hat: Was können wir wissen? Die Weisheit des Sokrates, daß wir nichts wissen, hatte sich nicht durchhalten lassen, als es voranging mit dem Wissen und die Erkenntniserfolge unverkennbar geworden waren. Zu wissen, was wir nicht wissen können, wurde zur Sache der kritischen Vernunft. Seither hat sich der Verdacht erhoben und läßt sich nicht leicht loswerden, wir wüßten vielleicht schon zu viel oder jedenfalls das gerade nicht, was wir hatten wissen wollen, als es noch etwas zu wollen gab: als Neugierde noch das unmittelbare Motiv des Erkennens war. Von der Frage, was es denn gewesen war, was wir hatten wissen wollen, darf man sich nicht durch die Einsicht abschrecken lassen, die Ansprüche würden in der Geschichte allemal durch die Resultate unterboten. Es ist zu vermuten, daß auch die Enttäuschungen des Studiums wert sind, weil ihre bohrende Unbestimmtheit ein Moment geschichtlicher Grundstimmungen auf der Skala von der Resignation bis zum Weltzorn ist. Was war es, was das Wissen zu bieten schien, als Verheißung vorstellte? Wie mußte, wie sollte die Welt sich darbieten, wenn die Ungewißheit nicht mehr Unbehagen bereiten sollte, woran man mit ihr wäre? Die Fragen, die sich derart reihen ließen, muten an wie etwas, was wir fast vergessen hätten. Sie laufen allen Maßstäben des Wißbaren und Wissenswerten zuwider und sind in allen Resultaten der Wissenschaft tief versenkt als das, worauf es nun nicht mehr ankommen kann, wenn man einmal so weit gekommen ist. >Metaphorologie< ist ein Verfahren, die Spuren solcher Wünsche und Ansprüche aufzufinden, die man durchaus nicht als >verdrängt< etikettieren muß, um sie interessant zu finden. Auch Erwartungen, die nicht erfüllt worden sind und kaum jemals erfüllt werden können, sind geschichtliche Fakten und Faktoren, Ansätze für immer wieder sich aufbauende Verlockungen und Verführungen bis zum wahnhaften Vogliamo tutto! Das Ungesättigte untergründiger Wünsche nach intensiver Erfahrung der Welt schafft sich exotische Lehrmeister, Werbungen für Einweihung ins Unsagbare, Trainer für Levitationen im weitesten, auch metaphorischen Sinne. Die Spuren führen dorthin, wo die Wünsche sich gebildet und eingenistet haben, und von da durch die Vermummungen ihrer Traditionen hindurch. Hat einmal ein einziges Buch alle Wahrheit zu enthalten versprochen, bleibt diese Grundform des Wahrheitsbesitzes nahezu unverzichtbar - rivalisierend gerade dann, wenn andere Formen nur mit dem Vorbehalt der >unendlichen Arbeit< auftreten können.
Unter dem Titel »Lesbarkeit der Welt« lassen sich nur Episoden behandeln. Doch indizieren sie eine Kontinuität des Begehrens, die nicht die seiner Außerungen, seines Pathos und seiner Rhetorik ist. Daß etwas Episode bleibt, gibt ihm noch nicht unrecht. Die Mehrheit der Jahre oder Jahrhunderte macht nicht die Dichte der Geschichte aus. Die Hartnäckigkeit, mit der manches wiederkehrt und sich seine Metamorphosen erfindet, gibt nachdrücklicher zu denken als die Ständigkeit, mit der anderes einfach dableibt. Aber auch Wahngefährdung durch das, was wiederkehrt und seine Wunschenergie für den günstigen Geschichtsaugenblick bereithält, ist im Spiel: als greifbare Zukunft erscheint, was doch nur Korrektiv von Gegenwarten sein kann. Deshalb ist der metaphorische Komplex "Lesbarkeit der Welt" auch ein Leitfaden zur Nüchternheit. Der Sprung in die Utopie läßt sich in allen Phasen der Vergeblichkeit studieren: auf die Beherrschung der Natur zu verzichten, um ihre Vertraulichkeit zu gewinnen, die wahren Namen der Dinge zu kennen statt nur die exakten Formeln für ihre Herstellung, die hieroglyphische Erinnerung zu erneuern, statt sich dem Vergessen der Prognosen hinzugeben, den Ausdruck statt des Chemismus zu erfahren, den Sinn statt der Faktoren zu kennen - das alles sind Wünsche, die auch dadurch nicht sinnlos werden, daß sie nicht als Verheißungen für Erfüllungen genommen werden dürfen. Der Begriff der Erfahrung hat langfristige Abmagerungen durchgemacht. Von ihrem Endpunkt her läßt sich nur schwer nachvollziehen, daß Lesbarkeit eine Metapher für Erfahrung sein konnte, noch oder wieder sein könnte. Erfahrung gilt als disziplinierteste Form von Weltumgang, weil sie auf geradem Weg zum Urteil und damit zu jenen vorläufigen Endgültigkeiten führt, aus denen die Geschichte von Theorien und Wissenschaften besteht. Vielleicht hat erst die Diskreditierung von >Lebenserfahrung< in den Jugendbewegungen seit dem »Sturm und Drang« - zur Verfallsform alles dessen, was das Leben zu bieten hat, geworden - zum Verlust der bloßen Vermutung geführt, Erfahrung könne reicher sein als die bloße Gesamtheit von Bestätigungs- oder Widerlegungsverfahren, die in Methoden vorgegeben sind oder aus Theorien folgen. Der Erfahrene, wie immer er zu seinem Besitz gekommen sein mag, ist eine anachronistische Figur.
Sprachliches Nachsinnen, wie der Vielbefahrene schließlich zum Erfahrenen werden konnte, hilft wenig, wenn alles auf Fremderfahrung hinausläuft, die den mediengebundenen Zeitgenossen auf Heerscharen von Erfahrungsfunktionären angewiesen macht. Lesbarkeit ist da suspekt: Erfahrung wird angelesen, aber gerade nicht die eigene. Um so nachdenklicher macht, wenn die Metaphorik der Lesbarkeit gegenwärtig hält, was in Verlust geraten sein kann oder was niemals übers Erwünschtsein hinausgekommen, aber geblieben ist als Figur der Vertrautheit mit einem Sinn, der sich verweigern mag, als Verweigerter zu empfinden bleibt. Spätestens seit der Phänomenologie ist Erfahrung wieder, was zwar das Urteil trägt und rechtfertigt, aber nicht in ihm aufgeht. Anschauung wird zum Titel für Erfüllungen, denen kein Aufwand der Beschreibung adäquat werden kann. Es geht nicht mehr nur um "Gegenstände", wie präpariert für Urteilsmäßigkeit, sondern um Horizonte, Sinnstrukturen, Typik von Erwartung, Ausdruck und Welt. Die Lebensphilosophie hat das )Erlebnis" dem überkommenen Begriff von Erfahrung als mögliche Ursprünglichkeit entgegengestellt; und bemerkenswert ist, daß der Positivismus mit seinen "unverarbeiteten Erlebnissen" durchaus um das Elementare, das Asynthetische, konkurrieren wollte. Unter dem Titel der >Lesbarkeit< wird bestritten, daß nur die vielberedete "Praxis" den Reichtum der Erfahrung jenseits ihrer Abmagerung liefert. Auch und schon der bloße Weltgenuß, auch das Zuschauertum, die nutzungsungewillte Offenheit der Weltansicht enthält davon. Geht es dann noch um Wesentliches? Auf die Gefahr hin, Anstoß zu erregen, muß auch beim Wesentlichen zurückgefragt werden: für wen? Denn nicht nur unsere Einsichten sind wesentlich, weil sie es bleiben könnten, sondern auch unsere Ansichten sind es, obwohl sie es nicht bleiben mögen. Der Mensch ist ein Wesen der Ansichten mindestens ebenso, wie er eines der Einsichten sein oder werden mag. Wo er eine Welt hat oder sich gibt, hat er sich mit "Welt-ansicht" begnügt und "Welteinsicht" auch ohne Skepsis nicht in Aussicht. Erforschung der Metaphern hält inne im Vorfeld der Einsichten, um den Ansichten ihr Recht widerfahren zu lassen.
Footnote
Sonderausgabe zum 30jährigen Bestehen der Reihe "suhrkamp taschenbuch wissenschaft
Field
Philosophie
Wissenschaftstheorie

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