Document (#35286)

Author
Reiner, U.
Title
Automatische DDC-Klassifizierung bibliografischer Titeldatensätze der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie
Year
2009
Abstract
Das Klassifizieren von Objekten (z. B. Fauna, Flora, Texte) ist ein Verfahren, das auf menschlicher Intelligenz basiert. In der Informatik - insbesondere im Gebiet der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) - wird u. a. untersucht, inweit Verfahren, die menschliche Intelligenz benötigen, automatisiert werden können. Hierbei hat sich herausgestellt, dass die Lösung von Alltagsproblemen eine größere Herausforderung darstellt, als die Lösung von Spezialproblemen, wie z. B. das Erstellen eines Schachcomputers. So ist "Rybka" der seit Juni 2007 amtierende Computerschach-Weltmeistern. Inwieweit Alltagsprobleme mit Methoden der Künstlichen Intelligenz gelöst werden können, ist eine - für den allgemeinen Fall - noch offene Frage. Beim Lösen von Alltagsproblemen spielt die Verarbeitung der natürlichen Sprache, wie z. B. das Verstehen, eine wesentliche Rolle. Den "gesunden Menschenverstand" als Maschine (in der Cyc-Wissensbasis in Form von Fakten und Regeln) zu realisieren, ist Lenat's Ziel seit 1984. Bezüglich des KI-Paradeprojektes "Cyc" gibt es CycOptimisten und Cyc-Pessimisten. Das Verstehen der natürlichen Sprache (z. B. Werktitel, Zusammenfassung, Vorwort, Inhalt) ist auch beim intellektuellen Klassifizieren von bibliografischen Titeldatensätzen oder Netzpublikationen notwendig, um diese Textobjekte korrekt klassifizieren zu können. Seit dem Jahr 2007 werden von der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek nahezu alle Veröffentlichungen mit der Dewey Dezimalklassifikation (DDC) intellektuell klassifiziert.
Die Menge der zu klassifizierenden Veröffentlichungen steigt spätestens seit der Existenz des World Wide Web schneller an, als sie intellektuell sachlich erschlossen werden kann. Daher werden Verfahren gesucht, um die Klassifizierung von Textobjekten zu automatisieren oder die intellektuelle Klassifizierung zumindest zu unterstützen. Seit 1968 gibt es Verfahren zur automatischen Dokumentenklassifizierung (Information Retrieval, kurz: IR) und seit 1992 zur automatischen Textklassifizierung (ATC: Automated Text Categorization). Seit immer mehr digitale Objekte im World Wide Web zur Verfügung stehen, haben Arbeiten zur automatischen Textklassifizierung seit ca. 1998 verstärkt zugenommen. Dazu gehören seit 1996 auch Arbeiten zur automatischen DDC-Klassifizierung bzw. RVK-Klassifizierung von bibliografischen Titeldatensätzen und Volltextdokumenten. Bei den Entwicklungen handelt es sich unseres Wissens bislang um experimentelle und keine im ständigen Betrieb befindlichen Systeme. Auch das VZG-Projekt Colibri/DDC ist seit 2006 u. a. mit der automatischen DDC-Klassifizierung befasst. Die diesbezüglichen Untersuchungen und Entwicklungen dienen zur Beantwortung der Forschungsfrage: "Ist es möglich, eine inhaltlich stimmige DDC-Titelklassifikation aller GVK-PLUS-Titeldatensätze automatisch zu erzielen?"
Footnote
Vortrag gehalten am 03.06.2009 auf dem 98. Bibliothekartag 2009 in Erfurt; erscheint in: Dialog mit Biliotheken. Vgl. auch: http://www.gbv.de/vgm/info/biblio/01VZG/06Publikationen/2009/index.
Theme
Automatisches Klassifizieren
Object
Colibri

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