Document (#35354)

Author
Borst, T.
Löhden, A.
Neubert, J.
Pohl, A.
Title
"Linked Open Data" im Fokus : Spannende Themen und Diskussionen bei der SWIB12
Source
BuB. 64(2013) H.2, S.96
Year
2013
Series
Foyer: Tagung
Abstract
Seit 2009 veranstalten die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften - Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft (ZBW) und das Hochschulbibliothekszentrum des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz) jährlich zusammen die Konferenz »Semantic Web in Bibliotheken« (SWIB). In diesem Jahr fand die SWIB vom 26. bis 28. November in Köln statt und stand unter dem Motto »Towards an International Linked Open Data (LOD) Library Ecosystem«.
Content
"In den Keynotes betonte Emmanuelle Bermes (Centre Pompidou) die Wichtigkeit, nicht nur über Technologien, sondern auch mithilfe von Communities, Organisationen oder Standards Brücken im Sinne eines bibliothekarischen LOD-Ökosystems zu bauen; Jon Voss (LODLAM, Historypin) stellte die auf LOD im Kulturerbebereich fokussierte amerikanische Initiative »Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives, and Museums« (LODLAM) vor. Kevin Ford (Library of Congress) berichtete den brandneuen Stand des BIBFRAME-Projekts, das Bibliotheken und Gedächtnisinstitutionen im »Web of Data« integrieren soll. Die Verfügbarkeit von Bibliografie- und Normdaten als LOD ist inzwischen Realität, nun kommen - so ein Ergebnis der diesjährigen SWIB - auch Institutions- und Nutzungsdaten sowie Forschungsdaten dazu. Die Anreicherung bibliothekarischer Daten hatten mehrere Vorträge zum Inhalt. Das Culturegraph-Projekt der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek unter Mitarbeit des hbz benennt dabei außer der physischen Übertragung und der Verlinkung von Daten als weitere Möglichkeit die Ergänzung des Suchindex. Ein Vorhaben der Florida State University, von GESIS und Biotea befasst sich damit, wissenschaftliche Artikel beziehungsweise ihre Meta-daten aus den Volltexten selbst heraus zu ergänzen (über die Generierung von RDF-Daten aus PDF-Dokumenten). Ein GESIS-Projekt nutzt zur Anreicherung Bibliografie-, Zeitschriften- und Konferenzplattformen.
Inzwischen geht es nicht mehr nur um die Veröffentlichung von Linked Data, sondern es werden auch erweiterte Services für BibliotheksnutzerInnen vorgestellt. In der Osloer Deichmanske Bibliothek werden Buchrezensionen strukturiert auffindbar gemacht und den Büchern zugeordnet. An den Regalen bietet, vermittelt durch in den Medien enthaltene RFID-Tags, ein Monitor Medieninformationen aus Bibliotheks- und externen Quellen. Beim LOD-Dienst der Französischen Nationalbibliothek können Nutzerinnen nun auch explizit nach Werken, Editionen und einzelnen Exemplaren recherchieren oder nach Personen, die mit einer bestimmten Rolle an einer Ausgabe beteiligt sind. Bei der Recherche über Themen werden zu einem Stichwort feinere oder gröbere Themen vorgeschlagen. Die semantische Verknüpfung von Termen verbessert die bibliothekarische Erschließung und Recherche, die Anreicherung von Ressourcen sowie Gestaltung von Oberflächen über verschiedene Begriffssysteme und Sprachen hinweg. Mit automatischen Verfahren zur Pflege von Crosskonkordanzen zwischen Thesauri befasst sich unter anderem die »Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative« (OAEI), hier wurden Unterschiede von Ontologie-Werkzeugen und Formaten (SKOS, OWL) betrachtet. Ein noch bestehender Mangel an Mehrsprachigkeit von Ontologien und Formaten wurde zum Beispiel im Vortrag der Ontology Engineering Group der Polytechnischen Universität Madrid (OEG-UPM) angedeutet.
Metadaten verschiedener Quellen Die Dokumentation der Provenienz ist nicht nur für Medien wichtig, sondern - insbesondere wenn Metadaten verschiedener Quellen zusammengeführt werden - auch für die Metadaten selbst. Werden bibliothekarische Metadaten mit Daten aus Web2.0-Quellen angereichert (oder umgekehrt), so sollte mindestens zwischen der Herkunft aus Kulturerbeinstitutionen und Web2.0-Plattformen unterschieden werden. Im Provenance-Workshop wurden verschiedene Vokabulare zur Darstellung der Provenienz von Ressourcen und Metadaten diskutiert. Einen allgemein akzeptierten Ansatz für Linked Data scheint es bisher nicht zu geben - die verfügbaren Ansätze seien teils komplex, sodass auf Metadaten operierende Applikationen speziell auf sie ausgerichtet sein müssten, oder aber unterstützten nicht gut mehrfache Metaaussagen wie zum Beispiel verschachtelte Quellen. Daher empfehle sich eine fallweise pragmatische Vorgehensweise. Dass der Workshop zum Thema Provenance innerhalb weniger Tage ausgebucht war, weist ebenfalls auf die Aktualität des Themas hin. Um für die verschiedensprachigen Wikipedia-Artikel die Datenpflege zu erleichtern, sammelt Wikidata deren Fakten und stellt sie als Datenbasis bereit. Die sogenannten Claims von Wikidata enthalten neben den - über die lokalen Wikipedias divergierenden - Aussagen auch ihre Quellen und Zeitkontexte. Auf die Darstellung der Rechte und Lizenzen der veröffentlichten Bestände an Linked Data wurde mehrfach eingegangen, zum Beispiel in den Vorträgen der Universitätsbibliothek von Amsterdam und der OEG-UPM. Neben den bibliotheksspezifischen Formaten und Schnittstellen trägt auch dies zur Abschottung beziehungsweise Öffnung von Bibliotheksdaten bei. Im Kontext der »Europeana« wird an der Darstellung von Ressourcen-Lizenzen gearbeitet, mithilfe von URLs werden Ressource- und Lizenzinformationen dynamisch zusammen angezeigt."
Theme
Semantic Web
Object
SWIB12
Location
D

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  4. Pohl, A.; Steeg, F.: Zurück ins Web : die Entwicklung eines neuen Webauftritts für die Nordrhein-Westfälische Bibliographie (NWBib) (2016) 0.31
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  5. Neubert, J.; Kempf, A.O.: Standard-Thesaurus Wirtschaft : nach Komplettüberarbeitung in Version 9.0 verfügbar (2015) 0.31
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