Document (#35446)

Author
Warner, J.
Title
So mechanical or routine : the not original in Feist
Source
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.4, S.820-834
Year
2010
Abstract
The United States Supreme Court case of 1991, Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Service Co., continues to be highly significant for property in data and databases, but remains poorly understood. The approach taken in this article contrasts with previous studies. It focuses upon the not original rather than the original. The delineation of the absence of a modicum of creativity in selection, coordination, and arrangement of data as a component of the not original forms a pivotal point in the Supreme Court decision. The author also aims at elucidation rather than critique, using close textual exegesis of the Supreme Court decision. The results of the exegesis are translated into a more formal logical form to enhance clarity and rigor. The insufficiently creative is initially characterized as so mechanical or routine. Mechanical and routine are understood in their ordinary discourse senses, as a conjunction or as connected by AND, and as the central clause. Subsequent clauses amplify the senses of mechanical and routine without disturbing their conjunction. The delineation of the absence of a modicum of creativity can be correlated with classic conceptions of computability. The insufficiently creative can then be understood as a routine selection, coordination, or arrangement produced by an automatic mechanical procedure or algorithm. An understanding of a modicum of creativity and of copyright law is also indicated. The value of the exegesis and interpretation is identified as its final simplicity, clarity, comprehensiveness, and potential practical utility.
Theme
Rechtsfragen

Similar documents (author)

  1. Warner, J.: Retrieval performance tests in relation to online bibliographic searching (1992) 4.97
    4.9683237 = sum of:
      4.9683237 = weight(author_txt:warner in 4522) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9683237 = score(doc=4522,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.12579694 = queryNorm
          4.968324 = fieldWeight in 4522, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4522)
    
  2. Warner, A.J.: ¬A linguistic approach to the automated hierarchical organization of phrases (1990) 4.97
    4.9683237 = sum of:
      4.9683237 = weight(author_txt:warner in 4902) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9683237 = score(doc=4902,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.12579694 = queryNorm
          4.968324 = fieldWeight in 4902, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4902)
    
  3. Warner, J.: Semiotics, information science, documents, and computers (1990) 4.97
    4.9683237 = sum of:
      4.9683237 = weight(author_txt:warner in 5332) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9683237 = score(doc=5332,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.12579694 = queryNorm
          4.968324 = fieldWeight in 5332, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=5332)
    
  4. Warner, J.: Semiotics, information science, documents, and computers (1994) 4.97
    4.9683237 = sum of:
      4.9683237 = weight(author_txt:warner in 7652) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9683237 = score(doc=7652,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.12579694 = queryNorm
          4.968324 = fieldWeight in 7652, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=7652)
    
  5. Warner, A.J.: Quantitative and qualitative assessments of the impact of linguistic theory on information science (1991) 4.97
    4.9683237 = sum of:
      4.9683237 = weight(author_txt:warner in 29) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9683237 = score(doc=29,freq=1.0), product of:
          0.99999994 = queryWeight, product of:
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.12579694 = queryNorm
          4.968324 = fieldWeight in 29, product of:
            1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
              1.0 = termFreq=1.0
            7.9493184 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=42740)
            0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=29)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Warner, J.: ¬The absence of creativity in Feist and the computational process (2010) 0.81
    0.8086498 = sum of:
      0.8086498 = product of:
        1.8378404 = sum of:
          0.07316682 = weight(abstract_txt:clauses in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07316682 = score(doc=1109,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.122155294 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0124432 = boost
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5989656 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.13848732 = weight(abstract_txt:computability in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13848732 = score(doc=1109,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.12959924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0428354 = boost
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.0685812 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.051915184 = weight(abstract_txt:decision in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.051915184 = score(doc=1109,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.08489238 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1936139 = boost
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.61154115 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.164767 = weight(abstract_txt:absence in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.164767 = score(doc=1109,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.13822725 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5230927 = boost
                7.2085433 = idf(docFreq=85, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.1920007 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                7.2085433 = idf(docFreq=85, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.13222523 = weight(abstract_txt:delineation in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13222523 = score(doc=1109,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22834373 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9576004 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5790622 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.09143828 = weight(abstract_txt:original in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09143828 = score(doc=1109,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.15599157 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2882059 = boost
                5.414848 = idf(docFreq=516, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5861745 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.414848 = idf(docFreq=516, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.35859448 = weight(abstract_txt:creativity in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.35859448 = score(doc=1109,freq=11.0), product of:
              0.22856766 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3987365 = boost
                7.568546 = idf(docFreq=59, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.5688767 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                3.3166249 = tf(freq=11.0), with freq of:
                  11.0 = termFreq=11.0
                7.568546 = idf(docFreq=59, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.13581856 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13581856 = score(doc=1109,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.26610276 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.588212 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5103989 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.19833784 = weight(abstract_txt:supreme in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19833784 = score(doc=1109,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3425156 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9364007 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5790622 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.19505681 = weight(abstract_txt:routine in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19505681 = score(doc=1109,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.40160608 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.104872 = boost
                7.77107 = idf(docFreq=48, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.48569188 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.77107 = idf(docFreq=48, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
          0.29803288 = weight(abstract_txt:mechanical in 1109) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.29803288 = score(doc=1109,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.42285582 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.212071 = boost
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.70480967 = fieldWeight in 1109, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1109)
        0.44 = coord(11/25)
    
  2. Warner, J.: Creativity for Feist (2013) 0.67
    0.6659416 = sum of:
      0.6659416 = product of:
        1.6648539 = sum of:
          0.090539314 = weight(abstract_txt:clauses in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.090539314 = score(doc=2956,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.122155294 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0124432 = boost
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.7411821 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.06996123 = weight(abstract_txt:computability in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06996123 = score(doc=2956,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12959924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0428354 = boost
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.53982747 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.02622659 = weight(abstract_txt:decision in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02622659 = score(doc=2956,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08489238 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1936139 = boost
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.30893928 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.649175 = idf(docFreq=408, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.06998576 = weight(abstract_txt:creative in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06998576 = score(doc=2956,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12962954 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4749643 = boost
                6.980759 = idf(docFreq=107, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5398905 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.980759 = idf(docFreq=107, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.09565173 = weight(abstract_txt:understood in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09565173 = score(doc=2956,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.15964651 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0047252 = boost
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.599147 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.36640462 = weight(abstract_txt:creativity in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.36640462 = score(doc=2956,freq=15.0), product of:
              0.22856766 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3987365 = boost
                7.568546 = idf(docFreq=59, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.6030467 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                3.8729835 = tf(freq=15.0), with freq of:
                  15.0 = termFreq=15.0
                7.568546 = idf(docFreq=59, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.118841246 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.118841246 = score(doc=2956,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.26610276 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.588212 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.44659907 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.1735456 = weight(abstract_txt:supreme in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1735456 = score(doc=2956,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3425156 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9364007 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.5066794 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.24137048 = weight(abstract_txt:routine in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.24137048 = score(doc=2956,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.40160608 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.104872 = boost
                7.77107 = idf(docFreq=48, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.601013 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.77107 = idf(docFreq=48, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
          0.41232744 = weight(abstract_txt:mechanical in 2956) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.41232744 = score(doc=2956,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.42285582 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.212071 = boost
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.9751017 = fieldWeight in 2956, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2956)
        0.4 = coord(10/25)
    
  3. MacLeod, D.: ¬The Internet, LEXIS, and WESTLAW : a comparison of resources for the legal researcher (1996) 0.05
    0.053465024 = sum of:
      0.053465024 = product of:
        0.6683128 = sum of:
          0.2716371 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 4789) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2716371 = score(doc=4789,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.26610276 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.588212 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.0207978 = fieldWeight in 4789, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4789)
          0.39667568 = weight(abstract_txt:supreme in 4789) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.39667568 = score(doc=4789,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3425156 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9364007 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.1581244 = fieldWeight in 4789, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4789)
        0.08 = coord(2/25)
    
  4. Mainzer, K.: ¬The emergence of self-conscious systems : from symbolic AI to embodied robotics (2014) 0.05
    0.05293228 = sum of:
      0.05293228 = product of:
        0.44110236 = sum of:
          0.0799557 = weight(abstract_txt:computability in 5399) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0799557 = score(doc=5399,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12959924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0428354 = boost
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.6169457 = fieldWeight in 5399, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.871131 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=5399)
          0.06311378 = weight(abstract_txt:understood in 5399) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06311378 = score(doc=5399,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15964651 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0047252 = boost
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.39533454 = fieldWeight in 5399, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.3253527 = idf(docFreq=207, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=5399)
          0.29803288 = weight(abstract_txt:mechanical in 5399) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.29803288 = score(doc=5399,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.42285582 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.212071 = boost
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.70480967 = fieldWeight in 5399, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.974011 = idf(docFreq=39, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=5399)
        0.12 = coord(3/25)
    
  5. O'Neil, R.M.: Free speech in cyberspace (1998) 0.05
    0.04678189 = sum of:
      0.04678189 = product of:
        0.58477366 = sum of:
          0.23768249 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 2249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23768249 = score(doc=2249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.26610276 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.588212 = boost
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              0.89319813 = fieldWeight in 2249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.166383 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2249)
          0.3470912 = weight(abstract_txt:supreme in 2249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3470912 = score(doc=2249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3425156 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9364007 = boost
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.012589828 = queryNorm
              1.0133588 = fieldWeight in 2249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.264996 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2249)
        0.08 = coord(2/25)