Document (#36286)

Author
Kaiser, A.
Title
Computer-unterstütztes Indexieren in Intelligenten Information Retrieval Systemen : Ein Relevanz-Feedback orientierter Ansatz zur Informationserschließung in unformatierten Datenbanken
Imprint
Wien : Wirtschaftsuniversität
Year
1993
Pages
xxx S
Abstract
Information ist in unserer Zeit zu einem sehr wichtigen Gut geworden. Sie ist Grundlage jeglicher seriösen Entscheidungsfindung. Die Informationsflut ist in den letzten Jahren stark angestiegen und auch in absehbarer Zeit wird die Menge der Informationen weiter anwachsen. Daher wird es immer wichtiger, sich ''Information über Information'' zu organisieren. Es ist nicht möglich, über alle Bereiche, mit denen man konfrontiert wird, im letzten Detail informiert zu sein. Notwendig und wichtig ist es aber zu wissen, wo man sich informieren kann. Relevante Informationen müssen möglichst rasch gefunden werden können. Im praktischen, EDV-unterstützten Einsatz findet man zu diesem Zweck Informationssysteme verschiedenster Art. Das Spektrum reicht dabei von Management-Informationssystemen, über Expertensysteme bis zu Datenbanksystemen und Information Retrieval Systemen (IR-Systemen). Obwohl die einzelnen Typen dieser informationsverarbeitenden Systeme für unterschiedliche Anwendergruppen und unterschiedliche Aufgabenarten konzipiert sind, ergeben sich beim Entwurf der Systeme doch sehr ähnlich gelagerte Problemkreise und Fragestellungen. * Die Darstellung und die Organisation von bestehendem Wissen und bekannten Fakten im Informationssystem (Informationserschließung). * Das (Wieder)finden relevanter Informationen aus dem Informationssystem und das Führen des Benutzers durch das Informationssystem. Ein Information Retrieval System beinhaltet unstrukturierte bibliographische oder textuelle Dokumente und unterscheidet sich dadurch wesentlich von Datenbanksystemen, die für gewöhnlich strukturierte Daten enthalten.
Konventionelle, formatierte Datenbanken sind heute in der Praxis bereits weit verbreitet. Dies nicht zuletzt auch deshalb, weil unter anderem die standardisierte Abfragesprache SQL existiert und insbesondere bei relationalen Datenbanksystemen die Forschung intensiv an Verbesserungen in Aufbau und Performance der Systeme arbeitet. Die Verbreitung und Akzeptanz von unformatierten Datenbanken, Information Retrieval Systemen, ist hingegen bei weitem nicht so weit gediehen. Ein Grund dafür ist in der mangelnden Benutzerfreundlichkeit der IR-Systeme und in unzulänglichen Methoden der Informationserschließung zu suchen. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit soll eine Methode zur Informationserschliessung in Information Retrieval Systemen entwickelt werden, die die Bedürfnisse des Benutzers in den Mittelpunkt stellt und so einen Beitrag dazu leistet, die Akzeptanz und Verbreitung von Information Retrieval Systemen, insbesondere für den Bürobereich, zu erhöhen. Die Fragestellung lautet somit: Ist es möglich, den Benutzer bereits im Stadium der Indexierung von Dokumenten in verstärktem Maße miteinzubeziehen, ohne dabei aber auf die maschinelle Unterstützung völlig zu verzichten, wie dies bei der manuellen Indexierung der Fall ist. Jedes Retrievalsystem kann als ein System beschrieben werden, das aus einer Menge von Dokumenten und einer Menge von Suchfragen besteht und das einen Mechanismus enthält, der die für eine Suchanfrage relevanten Dokumente bestimmt.
Dazu sind folgende Teile eines IR-Systems notwendig: * Informationserschließung Eine Komponente zur Erschließung und Darstellung der gespeicherten Informationen. Dieser Teil dient dazu, den Inhalt der Dokumente zu beschreiben und so darzustellen, daß aufgrund dieser Merkmale ein Dokument gefunden werden kann. Eine Möglichkeit dazu besteht darin, den Dokumenten inhaltsbeschreibende Deskriptoren zuzuordnen. Durch den Prozeß der Indexierung werden die Dokumente in eine Indexierungssprache übersetzt. * Query-Language (Abfragesprache) Eine Komponente zur Formulierung der Suchanfragen des Benutzers. Dieser Teil dient dazu, die Suchanfrage des Benutzers so zu verarbeiten, daß mit der aus der Frage gewonnenen Information über die Bedürfnisse des Benutzers die passenden Dokumente gefunden werden können. * Informationsausgabe - Informationsaufbereitung Eine Komponente zur Ausgabe der auf Grund der Suchanfrage gefundenen Informationen. Dieser Teil stellt das Ergebnis der Suchanfrage dem Benutzer zur Verfügung.
Es würde den Rahmen der Arbeit sprengen, alle Komponenten eines Information Retrieval Systems zu untersuchen. Daher wird ein Schwerpunkt auf die Informationserschließung gelegt. Dabei wird die (semi)automatische Indexierung von Dokumenten zum Zwecke des Information Retrievals, also der Vorgang der Übersetzung der Dokumente in eine Indexierungssprache genauer behandelt. Dieser Schwerpunkt wurde unter anderem deshalb gewählt, weil meiner Ansicht nach die festzustellende mangelnde Akzeptanz von Information Retrieval Systemen auch damit zu begründen ist, daß die in der Praxis eingesetzten Indexierungskomponenten der Systeme zur Zeit noch nicht den Leistungsumfang erbringen, den der Benutzer von einem ''Intelligenten Information Retrieval System'' erwartet. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, ein Modell zur automatischen Indexierung schrittweise zu entwickeln, das den Benutzer in stärkerem Maße in die Indexierung mit einbezieht, als dies bei den in Literatur und Praxis beschriebenen Verfahren der Fall ist.
Content
Vgl.: http://www.ai.wu.ac.at/Publikationen/Kaiser/diss.html.
Footnote
Dissertation
Theme
Automatisches Indexieren

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  4. Mußler, G.; Reiterer, H.; Mann, T.M.: INSYDER - Information Retrieval aspects of a business intelligence system (2000) 0.26
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