Document (#36427)

Author
Weller, K.
Title
Ontologien: Stand und Entwicklung der Semantik für WorldWideWeb
Source
LIBREAS: Library ideas. no.15, 2009, S.5-12
Year
2009
Abstract
Die Idee zu einem semantischen Web wurde maßgeblich geprägt (wenn auch nicht initiiert) durch eine Veröffentlichung von Tim Berners Lee, James Hendler und Ora Lassila im Jahre 2001. Darin skizzieren die Autoren ihre Version von einem erweiterten und verbesserten World Wide Web: Daten sollen so aufbereitet werden, dass nicht nur Menschen diese lesen können, sondern dass auch Computer in die Lage versetzt werden, diese zu verarbeiten und sinnvoll zu kombinieren. Sie beschreiben ein Szenario, in dem "Web agents" dem Nutzer bei der Durchführung komplexer Suchanfragen helfen, wie beispielsweise "finde einen Arzt, der eine bestimmte Behandlung anbietet, dessen Praxis in der Nähe meiner Wohnung liegt und dessen Öffnungszeiten mit meinem Terminkalender zusammenpassen". Die große Herausforderung liegt hierbei darin, dass Informationen, die über mehrere Webseiten verteilt sind, gesammelt und zu einer sinnvollen Antwort kombiniert werden müssen. Man spricht dabei vom Problem der Informationsintegration (Information Integration). Diese Vision der weltweiten Datenintegration in einem Semantic Web wurde seither vielfach diskutiert, erweitert und modifiziert, an der technischen Realisation arbeitet eine Vielzahl verschiedener Forschungseinrichtungen. Einigkeit besteht dahingehend, dass eine solche Idee nur mit der Hilfe neuer bedeutungstragender Metadaten verwirklicht werden kann. Benötigt werden also neue Ansätze zur Indexierung von Web Inhalten, die eine Suche über Wortbedeutungen und nicht über bloße Zeichenketten ermöglichen können. So soll z.B. erkannt werden, dass es sich bei "Heinrich Heine" um den Namen einer Person handelt und bei "Düsseldorf" um den Namen einer Stadt. Darüber hinaus sollen auch Verbindungen zwischen einzelnen Informationseinheiten festgehalten werden, beispielsweise dass Heinrich Heine in Düsseldorf wohnte. Wenn solche semantischen Relationen konsequent eingesetzt werden, können sie in vielen Fällen ausgenutzt werden, um neue Schlussfolgerungen zu ziehen.
Content
Vgl.: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/docviews/abstract.php?lang=&id=30235; urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100102730.
Theme
Wissensrepräsentation
Object
WWW

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  4. Roth, A.: Modellierung und Anwendung von Ontologien am Beispiel "Operations Research & Management Science" (2002) 0.36
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  5. Lischka, K.: 128 Zeichen für die Welt : Vor 40 Jahren schrieben Fachleute das Alphabet des Computers - und schufen damit dem ASCII-Standard (2003) 0.33
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